خبرنامه علمی معاونت پژوهشی و فناوری دانشگاه علوم پزشکی شیراز
  Spring 2018 / Vol.3 Number 2

Subject: " Basic Science "

 

Hajareh Haghighi F, Hadadzadeh H, Farrokhpour H, Amirghofran Z, Mirahmadi-Zare SZ. Stabilization of DOPA Zwitterions on Laser-Generated Gold Nanoparticles: ONIOM Computational Study of the Charge-Dependent Structural and Electronic Changes of DOPA Adsorbed on the Gold Nanosurface. Journal of Physical Chemistry C. 2018;122(15):8680-92.

A stable colloidal solution of gold nanoparticle-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) zwitterion conjugates (Au NP-z-DOPA) was prepared using nanosecond-laser ablation of a gold target in an aqueous solution of zwitterionic DOPA (z-DOPA). Spectroscopic data revealed that Au NPs strongly interact with z-DOPA, which lead to a significant change in the electronic structure of z-DOPA. The adsorbed z-DOPA is highly stable against oxidation in aqueous solution, indicating a significant stabilizing effect of the Au NPs surface on this zwitterion. The electronic structures and geometries of z-DOPA and the other forms of DOPA (including uncharged, cationic, and anionic forms) adsorbed on the Au(111) nanosurface were determined by ONIOM calculations. The geometry and electronic structure of each DOPA form are significantly affected by the surface upon adsorption. The analysis of the frontier orbitals confirmed the significant stabilizing effect of the Au NPs on z-DOPA. The calculations are consistent with the variations observed in the recorded absorption spectra of z-DOPA due to its interaction with Au NPs. The Au nanosurface does not necessarily have a stabilizing effect on all DOPA forms. The cytotoxicities of z-DOPA and Au NP-z-DOPA against the Jurkat T-cells were evaluated

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Malekmohammadi S, Hadadzadeh H, Farrokhpour H, Amirghofran Z. Immobilization of gold nanoparticles on folate-conjugated dendritic mesoporous silica-coated reduced graphene oxide nanosheets: A new nanoplatform for curcumin pH-controlled and targeted delivery. Soft Matter. 2018;14(12):2400-10.

In the present study, a new sandwich-like nanocomposite as a multifunctional smart nanocarrier for curcumin (Cur) targeted delivery and cell imaging was prepared by immobilization of gold nanoparticles on folic acid-modified dendritic mesoporous silica-coated reduced graphene oxide nanosheets (AuNPs@GFMS). The physical and chemical properties of the nanocomposite were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Fourier transformation infrared (FT-IR), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis. The nanocarrier exhibits a number of interesting properties, including good biocompatibility, biodegradability, and suitable surface area, which results in high drug loading capacity. In addition, this new drug delivery system showed sustained-release and pH-responsive properties. The in vitro cytotoxicity test of the free curcumin, free nanocarrier (AuNPs@GFMS), curcumin-loaded folate-conjugated nanocarriers (Cur-AuNPs@GFMS), and curcumin-loaded nanocarriers without folate-conjugation (Cur-AuNPs@GAMS) against two human cancer cell lines, including MCF-7 (human breast carcinoma cell lines) and A549 (human lung carcinoma cell lines) demonstrated that the therapeutic efficacy of Cur-AuNPs@GFMS is significantly greater than those of other compounds because the cancerous cells can uptake the folate-conjugated drug nanocarrier via a receptor-mediated mechanism. Fluorescence microscopic images and different staining techniques were also used to visualize the cellular uptake, anticancer activity, specific targeting ability, and photothermal potency of Cur-AuNPs@GFMS toward the MCF-7 cancer cells. The obtained results proved that the proposed system, Cur-AuNPs@GFMS, can be used as a potent anticancer agent in targeted cancer therapies for breast cancer.

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Moazzen M, Mousavi Khaneghah A, Shariatifar N, Ahmadloo M, Eş I, Baghani AN, Yousefinejad S, Alimohammadi M, Azari A, Dobaradaran S, Rastkari N, Nazmara S, Delikhoon M, Jahed Khaniki G. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified with iron oxide and silver nanoparticles (MWCNT-Fe3O4/Ag) as a novel adsorbent for determining PAEs in carbonated soft drinks using magnetic SPE-GC/MS method. Arabian Journal of Chemistry. 2018.

The synthesis of compounds with an excellent adsorption capability plays an essential role to remove contaminants such as phthalic acid esters (PAEs) with potential carcinogenic characteristics from different food products. In this context, for the first time, a novel adsorbent (MWCNT-Fe3O4/Ag) was synthesized by using iron (magnetic agent), and silver (catalytic and surface enhancer agent) to further approach in a magnetic SPE-GC/MS method for determining of PAEs in carbonated soft drink samples. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) values of MSPE-GC/MS were determined in six PAEs as a range of 10.8–22.5 and 36–75 ng/L, respectively. Also, the calibration curves of PAEs were linear (R2 = 0.9981–0.9995) over the concentration level of 10.000 ng/L and the recoveries of the six PAEs were ranging from 96.60% to 109.22% with the RSDs less than 8%. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) and transmission electron microscopy analyses (TEM) were utilized to characterize the produced MWCNT-Fe3O4/Ag. Based on the findings, the surface of MWCNT is relatively uniform, which became coarser after loading with Fe3O4/Ag particles. Also, EDX spectrum showed the carbon (C), iron (Fe), oxygen (O), Ag and copper (Cu) are the main components of synthesized MWCNTs-Fe3O4/Ag. The successful adhesion of Fe3O4/Ag on the texture of MWCNTs using a co-precipitation method was confirmed by XRD and FT-IR assays. Additionally, excellent crystallinity and clear lattice nanocrystals fringes of prepared MWCNT-Fe3O4/Ag was demonstrated by TEM analysis. Based on the obtained VSM images, the prepared sorbent (MWCNT-Fe3O4/Ag) has the good magnetic performance for magnetic separation and extraction processes. It was concluded that the synthesized MWCNT-Fe3O4/Ag could be used as an efficient adsorbent for determining contaminants such as PAEs in different beverage samples

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Nazari-Vanani R, Sattarahmady N, Yadegari H, Heli H. A novel and ultrasensitive electrochemical DNA biosensor based on an ice crystals-like gold nanostructure for the detection of Enterococcus faecalis gene sequence. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces. 2018;166:245-53.

Bacteria, parasites and viruses are found widely in the environment as potential pathogens, and can be the source of infections. Therefore, sensitive and rapid methods for identification of the pathogens are required to achieve a better quality of life. Enterococcus faecalis commonly colonizes and threatens human health. In the present study, we demonstrate the fabrication of a novel electrochemical DNA biosensor based on electrodeposited gold nanostructures as a transducer substrate combined with toluidine blue (TB) as a redox marker. Binding of TB with the single and double stranded DNA (ssDNA and dsDNA) was shortly investigated, and based on the results, TB could discriminate between ssDNA and dsDNA. A specific thiolated ssDNA sequence was immobilized on the transducer substrate, and DNA hybridization was followed by differential pulse voltammetry. The DNA biosensor showed excellent performances with high sensitivity and good selectivity. The DNA biosensor was applied to detect a synthetic target in a linear range of 1.0 × 10−17–1.0 × 10−10 mol L−1 with a limit of detection (LOD) of 4.7 × 10−20 mol L−1. In addition, LOD of the DNA biosensor for the detection of genomic DNA was found to be 30.1 ng μL−1

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Sadeghian I, Khalvati B, Ghasemi Y, Hemmati S. TAT-mediated intracellular delivery of carboxypeptidase G2 protects against methotrexate-induced cell death in HepG2 cells. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. 2018;346:9-18.

Side effects of methotrexate (MTX) especially hepatotoxicity limits clinical applications of this anticancer agent. Carboxypeptidase G2 (CPG2) is administrated for the treatment of elevated plasma concentrations of MTX. In this study, we have investigated the intracellular delivery of CPG2 fused to the transactivator transduction domain (TAT) and its protective effects against MTX-induced cell death of HepG2 cells. We have observed that both native and denatured forms of the enzyme transduced into the HepG2 cells efficiently in a concentration and time-dependent manner. The denatured protein transduced with higher efficiency than the native form and was functional inside the cells. MTX exposure significantly decreased HepG2 cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The cell viability after 24 and 48 h of incubation with 100 μM MTX was reduced to 44.37% and 17.69%, respectively. In cells pretreated with native and denatured TAT-CPG2 protein the cell viability was 98.63% and 86.31% after 24 and 48 h, respectively. Treatment with MTX increased the number of apoptotic HepG2 cells to 90.23% after 48 h. However, the apoptosis percentage in cells pretreated with native and denatured TAT-CPG2 was 21.49% and 22.28%, respectively. Our results showed that TAT-CPG2 significantly prevents MTX-induced oxidative stress by decreasing the formation of ROS and increasing the content of glutathione (GSH) and catalase activity. Our finding indicates that both native and denatured TAT-CPG2 strongly protect HepG2 cells against MTX-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis. Hence, intracellular delivery of CPG2 might provide a new therapeutic strategy for protecting against MTX mediated cytotoxicity

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Seifan M, Ebrahiminezhad A, Ghasemi Y, Samani AK, Berenjian A. The role of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in the bacterially induced calcium carbonate precipitation. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 2018;102(8):3595-606.

Recently, magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONs) have been used to control and modify the characteristics of concrete and mortar. Concrete is one of the most used materials in the world; however, it is susceptible to cracking. Over recent years, a sustainable biotechnological approach has emerged as an alternative approach to conventional techniques to heal the concrete cracks by the incorporation of bacterial cells and nutrients into the concrete matrix. Once cracking occurs, CaCO3 is induced and the crack is healed. Considering the positive effects of IONs on the concrete properties, the effect of these nanoparticles on bacterial growth and CaCO3 biosynthesis needs to be evaluated for their possible application in bio self-healing concrete. In the present work, IONs were successfully synthesized and characterized using various techniques. The presence of IONs showed a significant effect on both bacterial growth and CaCO3 precipitation. The highest bacterial growth was observed in the presence of 150 μg/mL IONs. The highest concentration of induced CaCO3 (34.54 g/L) was achieved when the bacterial cells were immobilized with 300 μg/mL of IONs. This study provides new data and supports the possibility of using IONs as a new tool in designing the next generation of bio self-healing concrete

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Seifan M, Sarmah AK, Samani AK, Ebrahiminezhad A, Ghasemi Y, Berenjian A. Mechanical properties of bio self-healing concrete containing immobilized bacteria with iron oxide nanoparticles. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 2018;102(10):4489-98.

Concrete is arguably one of the most important and widely used materials in the world, responsible for the majority of the industrial revolution due to its unique properties. However, it is susceptible to cracking under internal and external stresses. The generated cracks result in a significant reduction in the concrete lifespan and an increase in maintenance and repair costs. In recent years, the implementation of bacterial-based healing agent in the concrete matrix has emerged as one of the most promising approaches to address the concrete cracking issue. However, the bacterial cells need to be protected from the high pH content of concrete as well as the exerted shear forces during preparation and hardening stages. To address these issues, we propose the magnetic immobilization of bacteria with iron oxide nanoparticles (IONs). In the present study, the effect of the designed bio-agent on mechanical properties of concrete (compressive strength and drying shrinkage) is investigated. The results indicate that the addition of immobilized Bacillus species with IONs in concrete matrix contributes to increasing the compressive strength. Moreover, the precipitates in the bio-concrete specimen were characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The characterization studies confirm that the precipitated crystals in bio-concrete specimen were CaCO3, while no precipitation was observed in the control sample

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Sadeghpour H, Khalvati B, Entezar-Almahdi E, Savadi N, Hossaini Alhashemi S, Raoufi M, Dehshahri A. Double domain polyethylenimine-based nanoparticles for integrin receptor mediated delivery of plasmid DNA. Scientific Reports. 2018;8(1).

The objective of the present study is to conjugate L-thyroxine PEI derivative onto another PEI to compensate the amine content of the whole structure which has been utilized for the ligand conjugation. Since αvβ3 integrin receptors are over-expressed on cancer cells and there is binding site for L-thyroxine on these receptors, PEI conjugation by L-thyroxine along with restoring the PEI amine content might be an efficient strategy for targeted delivery using polymeric nanoparticles. The results demonstrated the ability of the PEI conjugate in the formation of nanoparticles with the size of around 210 nm with higher buffering capacity. The conjugated PEI derivative increased the transfection efficiency in the cell lines over-expressing integrin by up to two folds higher than unmodified PEI, whereas in the cell lines lacking the integrin receptors there was no ligand conjugation-associated difference in gene transfer ability. The specificity of transfection demonstrated the delivery of plasmid DNA through integrin receptors. Also, the results of in vivo imaging of the polyplexes revealed that 99mTc-labeled PEI/plasmid DNA complexes accumulated in kidney and bladder 4 h post injection. Therefore, this PEI derivative could be considered as an efficient targeted delivery system for plasmid DNA

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Hashemi M, Bahari G, Markowski J, Małecki A, Łos MJ, Ghavami S. Association of PDCD6 polymorphisms with the risk of cancer: Evidence from a meta-analysis. Oncotarget. 2018;9(37):24857-68.

This study was designed to evaluate the relationship between Programmed cell death protein 6 (PDCD6) polymorphisms and cancer susceptibility. The online databases were searched for relevant case-control studies published up to November 2017. Review Manage (RevMan) 5.3 was used to conduct the statistical analysis. The pooled odds ratio (OR) with its 95% confidence interval (CI) was employed to calculate the strength of association. Overall, our results indicate that PDCD6 rs3756712 T > G polymorphism was significantly associated with decreased risk of cancer under codominant (OR = 0.82, 95%CI = 0.70-0.96, p = 0.01, TG vs TT; OR = 0.53, 95%CI = 0.39-0.72, p < 0.0001, GG vs TT), dominant (OR = 0.76, 95%CI = 0.66-0.89, p = 0.0004, TG+GG vs TT), recessive (OR = 0.57, 95%CI = 0.43-0.78, p = 0.0003, GG vs TT+TG), and allele (OR = 0.76, 95%CI = 0.67-0.86, p < 0.00001, G vs T) genetic model. The finding did not support an association between rs4957014 T > G polymorphism of PDCD6, and different cancers risk.

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Mohammadi M, Mowla D, Esmaeilzadeh F, Ghasemi Y. Cultivation of microalgae in a power plant wastewater for sulfate removal and biomass production: A batch study. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering. 2018;6(2):2812-20.

Sulfate can be presented as a chemical pollutant in some industrial wastewaters such as wastewater from power plants. Sulfate causes several problems in water and wastewater treatment including the corrosion of pipes and disruption of anaerobic processes. There are chemical, membrane, and biological methods to omit sulfate pollutant from wastewater. Microalgae have the dual role in wastewater treatment and biodiesel production. In this study, microalgae were used to reduce sulfate pollutant and to produce biomass from the combined-cycle power plant wastewater (5200mg/L sulfate concentration). To do so, the growth of five microalgae (Chlorella sp., Chlamydomonas sp., Oocystis sp., Scenedesmus sp., and Fischerella sp.), production of biomass, and elimination of sulfate were evaluated in a batch culture system. Results indicated that microalgae can reduce the amount of sulfate pollutant and produce biomass. In addition, it was found that Oocystis sp. had a higher sulfate uptake rate (32%) than other microalgae. However, maximum biomass productivity was found to be 50mg/L.d for Chlorella sp. Finally, the results showed that microalgae can be used to treat wastewater for sulfate reduction and production of microalgae biodiesel.

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Akbarian M, Ghasemi Y, Uversky VN, Yousefi R. Chemical modifications of insulin: Finding a compromise between stability and pharmaceutical performance. International Journal of Pharmaceutics. 2018;547(1-2):450-68

Insulin, a key peptide hormone that conjointly with its receptor regulates blood glucose levels, is used as the major means to treat diabetes. This therapeutic hormone may undergo different chemical modifications during industrial processes, pharmaceutical formulation, and through its endogenous storage in the pancreatic β-cells. Insulin is highly sensitive to the environmental stresses and easily undergoes structural changes, being also able to unfold and aggregate. Even small changes altering the structural integrity of insulin may have important impact on the biological efficacy in relation to the physiological and pharmacological activities of this hormone. The chemical modifications of insulin may occur either randomly or based on the well-planned strategies to enhance its pharmaceutical properties. A plethora of studies have attempted to answer the fundamental questions of how chemical modifications and which environmental conditions may have either destructive effects or improve structural stability and pharmaceutical performance of insulin. The aim of this review is to highlight the impact of different modifications on structure, stability, biological activity, and pharmaceutical properties of insulin

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Bastani P, Samadbeik M, Dinarvand R, Kashefian-Naeeini S, Vatankhah S. Qualitative analysis of national documents on health care services and pharmaceuticals' purchasing challenges: Evidence from Iran. BMC Health Services Research. 2018;18(1)

Iranian health sector encountered many challenges in resource allocation and health service purchasing during the past decades, the aim of this study was to determine the main challenges of the present process of health service purchasing for national policymakers and other developing countries with the same setting. Methods: It was a qualitative study carried out via the complete content analysis of all relevant national documents from 2007 to 2014. In order to retrieve the related documents, we searched the official websites related to the Ministry of Health and Medical Education, four main Iranian insurance organizations, the Health Committee of the Parliament Profile, strategic vice president's site and Supreme Insurance Council. After recognition of documents, their credibility and authenticity were evaluated in terms of their publication or adjustment. For the analysis of documents, the four step-Scott method was used applying MAXQDA version 10. Results: Findings illustrated that health service purchase challenges in the country can be classified in 6 main themes of policy-making, executive, intersectional, natural, legal and informational challenges with 26 subthemes. Furthermore, 5 themes of Basic Benefit Package, Reimbursement,Decision making, Technology and Contract are considered as the main Challenges in pharmaceutical purchasing area containing 13 relevant subthemes. Conclusions: It seems that according to documents, Iran has faced many structural and procedural problems with the purchase of the best health interventions. So it is highly recommended to consider consequences derived from the present challenges and try to use these evidences in their policy making process to decrease the existed problems and move to better procurement of health interventions

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Heidari S, Hemmateenejad B, Yousefinejad S, Moosavi-Movahedi AA. Excitation- emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy combined with three-way chemometrics analysis to follow denatured states of secondary structure of bovine serum albumin. Journal of Luminescence. 2018;203:90-9

Monitoring the secondary structure of proteins is surely important in different biochemical and biophysical interactions. In this study, estimation of changes in secondary structure motifs of bovine serum albumin were done by means of fluorescence spectroscopy coupled by parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) method. Different parameters such as core consistency, number of iteration and residual sum of squares were used to estimate optimum number of components in PARAFAC of fluorescence spectra and finally three components were utilized for resolving spectra. After curve resolution based on PARAFAC using suitable constrains such as nonnegativity and unimodality, concentration profiles of the resolved components were compared by the results of the secondary structure analysis based on circular dichroism (CD). An interesting agreement was detected between the concentration profiles of two components with variation of α-helix and random coil during chemical denaturation

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Hoseini M, Nabizadeh R, Delgado-Saborit JM, Rafiee A, Yaghmaeian K, Parmy S, Faridi S, Hassanvand MS, Yunesian M, Naddafi K. Environmental and lifestyle factors affecting exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the general population in a Middle Eastern area. Environmental Pollution. 2018;240:781-92

The aim of this study was to investigate environmental and lifestyle factors affecting exposure to PAHs in the general population in a large city of the Middle East (Tehran) by measuring urinary monohydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) and establishing relationships between PAHs exposure and related factors. Urine samples were collected from 222 randomly chosen subjects who were living in the urban area of Tehran, Iran. Subjects were required to complete a detailed questionnaire aimed to document their personal and sociodemographic information, activities, cooking-related appliances, smoking history/exposure, and consumed foodstuff. Identification and quantification of six OH-PAHs was carried out using a gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The geometric means for 1-OHP, 1-NAP, 2-NAP, 2-FLU, 9-FLU, and 9-PHE for whole population study were 310, 1220, 3070, 530, 330, and 130 ng/g creatinine, respectively. The two naphthalene metabolites contributed on average 77% of the total concentration of six measured OH-PAHs, followed by the 2-FLU, 1-OHP, 9-FLU, and 9-PHE. The most important predictors of urinary PAHs were consumption of grilled/barbecued foods, smoking, and exposure to environmental tobacco smoking. Water pipe smoking was linked to urinary OH-PAH metabolite in a dose-response function. Residential traffic was also related with OH-PAH metabolite concentrations. Other factors including gender, age, exposure to common house insecticides, open burning, and candle burning were found to be statistically associated with the urinary levels of some OH-PAHs. High exposure to PAHs among general population in Middle Eastern large cities and its associated health implications calls for public health measures to reduce PAHs exposure

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Karimi M, Mostaghimi H, Shams SF, Mehdizadeh AR. Design and production of two-piece thyroid-neck phantom by the concurrent use of epoxy resin and poly(Methyl methacrylate) soft tissue equivalent materials. Journal of Biomedical Physics and Engineering. 2018;8(2):217-22.

The aim of this report is to present a new two-piece thyroid-neck phantom produced by the concurrent use of epoxy resin and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA: plexiglass) soft tissue equivalent materials. Accordingly, mass attenuation coefficients of the epoxy resin and the plexiglass compounds were obtained from simulation (NIST XCOM 3.1) and measurements (practical dosimetry) and compared to those related to human soft tissue (ICRU 44). The thyroid-neck phantom and thyroid gland dimensions were derived from scientific references and the atlas of human anatomy, respectively. The thyroid phantom was designed by CATIA V5R16 software and produced by the epoxy resin compound by three-dimensional printer. Other organs were designed by ProNest software and made by the plexiglass sheets by CNC laser cutting machine. The mass attenuation coefficients for the epoxy resin (50 keV-20 MeV) and the plexiglass (0-20 MeV) were comparable to human soft tissue (ICRU 44), all with standard relative deviation beneath 5%. In addition, the SPECT images indicated the similarity between human thyroid tissue and its phantom. In conclusion, this study proves the feasibility and reliability of epoxy resin application in the production of two-piece thyroid-neck phantom. This phantom can be applied in the calibration of gamma camera systems, dosimetry and gamma spectrometry in the nuclear medicine field.

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Khatami M, Alijani HQ, Heli H, Sharifi I. Rectangular shaped zinc oxide nanoparticles: Green synthesis by Stevia and its biomedical efficiency. Ceramics International. 2018;44(13):15596-602.

Synthesis and properties of a new zinc oxide nanostructure, and its antimicrobial applications are presented. The synthesis method was fast, clean and green using a natural sweetener (Stevia) extract. The synthesized nanoparticles had a rectangular shape with a size range of 10–90 nm. The antimicrobial activity of the biosynthesized nanoparticles in parasitic strain of Leishmaniasis major and bacterial strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli was studied. It was found that low concentrations of the nanoparticles are required for complete prevention of growth of these organisms in vitro

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Kheynoor N, Hosseini SMH, Yousefi GH, Hashemi Gahruie H, Mesbahi GR. Encapsulation of vitamin C in a rebaudioside-sweetened model beverage using water in oil in water double emulsions. LWT. 2018;96:419-25.

In this work, vitamin C (VC) was encapsulated in a sugar-free rebaudioside-sweetened model beverage using water in oil in water (W1/O/W2) double emulsions (DEs). One- and two-step preparation methods were utilized for development of DEs. Various parameters including physical instability at different temperatures (4, 25 or 40 °C), centrifugal instability, particle size, pH, electrical conductivity (EC) and VC release from the internal aqueous phase (W1) were investigated during 30 d storage. The physical instability (i.e., formation of a less turbid subnatant) was dependent on the storage temperature and VC loading. However, it was not observed in DE samples developed by two-step method during 30 d storage at 4 °C. Particle size, EC and pH of DEs developed in two steps were lower than those prepared in one step. Two-step production method resulted in higher entrapment efficiency and stability. The chemical stability of VC encapsulated within DEs was significantly better than its stability in the continuous phase of an O/W simple emulsion. The degradation of encapsulated VC (in DEs) followed first-order reaction kinetics. The results of this study showed that VC can be efficiently entrapped within DEs developed by two-step method.

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Khosravi A, Sharifi I, Tavakkoli H, Derakhshanfar A, Keyhani AR, Salari Z, Mosallanejad SS, Bamorovat M. Embryonic toxico-pathological effects of meglumine antimoniate using a chick embryo model. PLoS ONE. 2018;13(5).

Leishmaniasis is one of the diverse and neglected tropical diseases. Embryo-toxicity of drugs has always been a major concern. Chick embryo is a preclinical model relevant in the assessment of adverse effects of drugs. The current study aimed to assess embryonic histopathological disorders and amniotic fluid biochemical changes following meglumine antimoniate treatment. The alteration of vascular branching pattern in the chick’s extra-embryonic membrane and exploration of molecular cues to early embryonic vasculogenesis and angiogenesis were also quantified. Embryonated chicken eggs were treated with 75 or 150 mg/kg of meglumine antimoniate. Embryo malformations, growth retardation and haemorrhages on the external body surfaces were accompanied by histopathological lesions in the brain, kidney, liver and heart in a dose-dependent manner. Significant rise occurred in the biochemical indices of alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and amylase in the amniotic fluid. Quantification of the extra-embryonic membrane vasculature showed that the anti-angiogenic and anti-vasculogenic effects of the drug were revealed by a significant decrease in fractal dimension value and mean capillary area. The relative expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor A and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 mRNA also significantly reduced. Concerns of a probable teratogenicity of meglumine antimoniate were established by data presented in this study. It is concluded that tissue lesions, amniotic fluid disturbance, altered early extra-embryonic vascular development and gene expression as well as the consecutive cascade of events, might eventually lead to developmental defects in embryo following meglumine antimoniate treatment. Therefore, the use of meglumine antimoniate during pregnancy should be considered as potentially embryo-toxic. Hence, physicians should be aware of such teratogenic effects and limit the use of this drug during the growing period of the fetus, particularly in rural communities. Further pharmaceutical investigations are crucial for planning future strategies

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Mahmoudi A, Shojaeifard MB, Nematollahii S, Mortazavi SMJ, Mehdizadeh AR. Effect of microwave Wi-Fi radiation at frequency of 2.4 GH on epileptic behavior of rats. Journal of Biomedical Physics and Engineering. 2018;8(2):185-92.

Electromagnetic fields (EMF) with different intensities are used in many social places. The world has become concerned about their potential biological side effects. Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic neurological diseases, affecting 50 million people of all ages worldwide. We aimed to investigate the microwave Wi-Fi radiation on epileptic behavior of rats. Materials and Methods: 147 male rats, weighing 200-250 g, were divided into seven groups; negative control (no intervention), sham 1(distilled water), positive control (Pentylentetrazol [PTZ]), intervention group 1 (PTZ + “off” Wi-Fi), sham 2 (distilled water + “off” Wi-Fi), sham 3 (distilled water + “on” Wi-Fi), and intervention group 2 (PTZ + “on” Wi-Fi). The rats were exposed to WiFi for 2h at a distance of 30cm from the device. Convulsive behaviors of rats were observed and scored based on the intensity and type by measuring latency/threshold time, number of convulsions, sum of scores and durations of seizure, and duration of score 6 seizure. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests were used to analyze the data. Results: Convulsion was observed in interventions 1 and 2, and positive control. The mean number of events, and sum of scores were significantly different in intervention 2 than other two groups; however, the difference in mean threshold, mean sum of durations and time to show convulsion with score 6 were not statistically significant (P>0.05). Conclusion: EMFs have significant beneficial effects on the epileptic behavior. Therefore, it can be suggested as a therapeutic approach for amelioration of seizures in epilepsy; however, it needs more investigation

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Ravanfar P, Namazi G, Borhani-Haghighi A, Zafarmand S. Neurologic effects of licorice: A review. Pharmacognosy Reviews. 2018;12(23):115-9.

Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) is an herbal medicine with several pharmacologic properties in ancient traditional medicine. Studies have provided evidence on its clinical efficacy in variety of medical conditions. There are evidences implying the neuroprotective role of licorice extract and its pharmacologically active ingredients in acute and chronic neurodegenerative processes. In the present study, we made a thorough search on existing publications on neuroprotective effects of licorice both in molecular/cellular and human/animal in vivo studies. There is strong evidence on both molecular and functional animal/human levels that suggest licorice extract or its pharmacologically active ingredients assert neuroprotective effects in acute and chronic neurologic disorders including ischemic stroke, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease. Licorice extract can be used safely in therapeutic doses for optimizing the treatment of a variety of neurodegenerative disorders as well as decreasing the extent of neural tissue damage and neurologic deficits after cerebrovascular accidents.

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Rostamzadeh D, Kazemi T, Amirghofran Z, Shabani M. Update on Fc receptor-like (FCRL) family: new immunoregulatory players in health and diseases. Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets. 2018;22(6):487-502.

Introduction: Fc receptor-like (FCRL) molecules, as recently identified members of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF), are preferentially expressed by B-cells. They have variable number of extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains and cytoplasmic activating ITAMs and/or inhibitory ITIMs. FCRL1-5 are dominantly expressed in different stages of B-cells development. But, FCRL6 is preferentially expressed in different subsets of T-cells and NK cells. FCRL1-5 could regulate different features of B-cell evolution such as development, differentiation, activation, antibody secretion and isotype switching. Areas covered: Improved understanding of FCRL expression may grant B-cells and finally its signaling pathways, alone or in cooperation with other signaling molecules, as interesting new targets for diagnostic, monitoring and immunotherapeutic modalities; although further investigations remain to be defined. Recent investigations on different family members of FCRL proteins have substantiated their differential expression on different tissues, malignancies, immune related disease and infectious diseases. Expert opinion: FCRLs restricted expressions in normal B-cells and T-cell subsets accompanied with their overexpression in B-cell malignancies introduce them as logical candidates for the development of antibody- and cell-based immunotherapy approaches in B-cell malignancies, immune-mediated and infectious diseases. FCRLs would be applied as attractive and specific targets for immunodiagnostic approaches, clinical prognosis as well as disease monitoring of relevant patients

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Subject: " Brain and Neurons "

 

Safahani M, Aligholi H, Noorbakhsh F, Djalali M, Pishva H, Modarres Mousavi SM, Alizadeh L, Gorji A, Koohdani F. Switching from high-fat diet to foods containing resveratrol as a calorie restriction mimetic changes the architecture of arcuate nucleus to produce more newborn anorexigenic neurons. European Journal of Nutrition. 2018:1-15.

These days, obesity threatens the health for which one of the main interventions is calorie restriction (CR). Due to the difficulty of compliance with this treatment, CR mimetics such as resveratrol (RSV) have been considered. The present study compared the effects of RSV and CR on hypothalamic remodeling in a diet-switching experiment. Methods: C57BL/6 male mice received high-fat diet (HFD) for 4 weeks, subsequently their diet switched to chow diet, HFD + RSV, chow diet + RSV or CR diet for a further 6 weeks. Body weight, fat accumulation, hypothalamic apoptosis and expression of trophic factors as well as generation and fate specification of newborn cells in arcuate nucleus (ARC) were evaluated. Results: Switching diet to RSV-containing foods leading to weight and fat loss after 6 weeks. In addition, not only a significant reduction in apoptosis but also a considerable increase in production of newborn cells in ARC occurred following consumption of RSV-enriched diets. These were in line with augmentation of hypothalamic ciliary neurotrophic factor and leukemia inhibitory factor expression. Interestingly, RSV-containing diets changed the fate of newborn neurons toward generation of more proopiomelanocortin than neuropeptide Y neurons. The CR had effects similar to those of RSV-containing diets in the all-evaluated aspects besides neurogenesis in ARC. Conclusions: Although both RSV-containing and CR diets changed the fate of newborn neurons to create an anorexigenic architecture for ARC, newborn neurons were more available after switching to RSV-enriched diets. It can be consider as a promising mechanism for future investigations

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Asadi-Pooya AA. Yield of EEG monitoring in children with developmental disabilities is high. Epilepsy and Behavior. 2018;84:105-6.

the purpose of this study was to investigate the yield of a 2-hour electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring (awake and sleep) in children with developmental disabilities and without any clinically apparent seizures. Methods: In this retrospective study, I investigated all children below 9 years of age who had developmental disabilities and were referred to Shiraz Comprehensive Epilepsy center for electroencephalographic investigation from June 2017 until January 2018. Exclusion criteria included any past history of neonatal seizures, febrile or afebrile seizures, and parental suspicion for seizures. We systematically obtained a brief clinical history and performed a 2-hour, awake and asleep EEG monitoring for all patients. Results: Thirty-two patients (23 males and 9 females) met all the inclusion and exclusion criteria; mean age (± standard deviation) was 4.1 (± 2.1) years. Nineteen patients (59%) had an abnormal EEG: 15 patients (47%) had epileptiform discharges, and four children had abnormal background activity with no epileptiform discharges. Conclusion: Considering the high diagnostic yield of an awake and asleep EEG monitoring, as it was observed in the current study, this test on a screening basis can be reasonably justified in all children with developmental disabilities.

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Asadi-Pooya AA, Ziyaee F. Outcome of patients with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures with limited resources: A longitudinal study. Seizure. 2018;59:1-4

The aim of the current study was to investigate the long-term outcome of patients with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) and factors potentially associated with their outcome in Iran. Methods: We investigated all patients with PNES admitted to the epilepsy monitoring unit at the Shiraz Comprehensive Epilepsy Center from 2008 through 2013. Patients included in this study had a confirmed diagnosis of PNES. In a phone call interview to the patients in December 2017, we obtained the following information: seizure outcome (seizure-free during the past 12 months or not), history of receiving any psychotherapy after confirming their diagnosis in the past, and number of psychotherapy sessions the patient had received. Results: Eighty-six patients (54 females and 32 males) met the inclusion criteria. Seventy-four (86%) patients did not receive appropriate psychotherapy. Forty-seven (54.7%) patients were seizure-free during the past 12 months. Age at onset (P = 0.02), education (P = 0.01), and taking psychiatric drugs (P = 0.007) were associated with this outcome. Conclusions: Resources to treat patients with PNES are limited in Iran; however, more than half of the patients became free of seizures. Lower education, comorbid psychiatric problems, and a later age at the onset of seizures may affect the seizure outcome in patients with PNES. Well-designed multi-center cross-cultural long-term studies should address factors associated with outcome in patients with PNES, considering that seizure frequency should not be the only outcome measure.

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Bevelacqua JJ, Mortazavi SMJ. Alzheimer ’s disease: Possible mechanisms behind neurohormesis induced by exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation. Journal of Biomedical Physics and Engineering. 2018;8(2):153-6

In 2016, scientists reported that human exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation (CT scans of the brain) might relieve symptoms of both Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Parkinson disease (PD). The findings were unbelievable for those who were not familiar with neurohormesis. X-ray stimulation of the patient’s adaptive protection systems against neurodegenerative diseases was the mechanism proposed by those authors. Now, some more recent studies performed in the field of neurobiological research confirm that low levels of stress can produce protective responses against the pathogenic processes. This paper outlines possible protective consequences of LDR in preventing the pathogenesis of AD through mechanisms such as restoring the myelin sheath and preventing neurodegeneration caused by oxidative stress. Focal demyelination is frequently reported in the proximity of beta-amyloid plaques within neocortex. Extracellular accumulation of amyloid is among well-characterized pathological changes in AD. It should be noted that LDR has been shown to contribute to the regeneration and functional recovery after transverse peripheral nerve injury (through inducing increased production of VEGF and GAP-43), which advances both the axonal regeneration and myelination. Another mechanism which is possibly involved is preventing neurodegeneration caused by oxidative stress. While high doses can induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, oxidative stress and neuro-inflammation, substantial evidence now indicates that LDR can mitigate tissue damage through antioxidant defenses. Although adult neurogenesis has been reported to be beneficial for the regeneration of nervous system, some studies demonstrate that neurogenesis increases in AD brains. In spite of these reports, cellular therapy is introduced as a promising strategy for AD, and hence, LDR can affect the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells. Although such mechanisms are not fully known yet, it is hoped that this paper would foster further investigation into the mechanisms of this phenomenon, which accordingly improves human health

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Ghobadian R, Mahdavi M, Nadri H, Moradi A, Edraki N, Akbarzadeh T, Sharifzadeh M, Bukhari SNA, Amini M. Novel tetrahydrocarbazole benzyl pyridine hybrids as potent and selective butryl cholinesterase inhibitors with neuroprotective and β-secretase inhibition activities. European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 2018;155:49-60.

Butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) inhibitors have become interesting target for treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). A series of dual binding site BuChE inhibitors were designed and synthesized based on 2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-carbazole attached benzyl pyridine moieties. In-vitro assay revealed that all of the designed compounds were selective and potent BuChE inhibitors. The most potent BuChE inhibitor was compound 6i (IC50 = 0.088 ± 0.0009 μM) with the mixed-type inhibition. Docking study revealed that 6i is a dual binding site BuChE inhibitor. Also, Pharmacokinetic properties for 6i were accurate to Lipinski's rule. In addition, compound 6i demonstrated neuroprotective and β-secretase (BACE1) inhibition activities. This compound could also inhibit AChE-induced and self-induced Aβ peptide aggregation at concentration of 100 μM and 10 μM respectively. Generally, the results are presented as new potent selective BuChE inhibitors with a therapeutic potential for the treatment of AD

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Maharlou H, Niakan Kalhori SR, Shahbazi S, Ravangard R. Predicting length of stay in intensive care units after cardiac surgery: Comparison of artificial neural networks and adaptive neuro-fuzzy system. Healthcare Informatics Research. 2018;24(2):109-17.

Objectives: Accurate prediction of patients’ length of stay is highly important. This study compared the performance of artificial neural network and adaptive neuro-fuzzy system algorithms to predict patients’ length of stay in intensive care units (ICU) after cardiac surgery. Methods: A cross-sectional, analytical, and applied study was conducted. The required data were collected from 311 cardiac patients admitted to intensive care units after surgery at three hospitals of Shiraz, Iran, through a non-random convenience sampling method during the second quarter of 2016. Following the initial processing of influential factors, models were created and evaluated. Results: The results showed that the adaptive neuro-fuzzy algorithm (with mean squared error [MSE] = 7 and R = 0.88) resulted in the creation of a more precise model than the artificial neural network (with MSE = 21 and R = 0.60). Conclusions: The adaptive neuro-fuzzy algorithm produces a more accurate model as it applies both the capabilities of a neural network architecture and experts’ knowledge as a hybrid algorithm. It identifies nonlinear components, yielding remarkable results for prediction the length of stay, which is a useful calculation output to support ICU management, enabling higher quality of administration and cost reduction

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Miller J, Watrous AJ, Tsitsiklis M, Lee SA, Sheth SA, Schevon CA, Smith EH, Sperling MR, Sharan A, Asadi-Pooya AA, Worrell GA, Meisenhelter S, Inman CS, Davis KA, Lega B, Wanda PA, Das SR, Stein JM, Gorniak R, Jacobs J. Lateralized hippocampal oscillations underlie distinct aspects of human spatial memory and navigation. Nature Communications. 2018;9(1).

The hippocampus plays a vital role in various aspects of cognition including both memory and spatial navigation. To understand electrophysiologically how the hippocampus supports these processes, we recorded intracranial electroencephalographic activity from 46 neurosurgical patients as they performed a spatial memory task. We measure signals from multiple brain regions, including both left and right hippocampi, and we use spectral analysis to identify oscillatory patterns related to memory encoding and navigation. We show that in the left but not right hippocampus, the amplitude of oscillations in the 1-3-Hz "low theta" band increases when viewing subsequently remembered object-location pairs. In contrast, in the right but not left hippocampus, low-theta activity increases during periods of navigation. The frequencies of these hippocampal signals are slower than task-related signals in the neocortex. These results suggest that the human brain includes multiple lateralized oscillatory networks that support different aspects of cognition

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Subject: " Dentistry "

 

Farzin M, Giti R, Asalforush-Rezaiye A. The effect of multiple firings on the shear bond strength of porcelain to a new millable alloy and a conventional casting alloy. Materials. 2018;11(4).

This study compared the effect of multiple firings on the shear bond strength (SBS) of porcelain to the new millable alloy (Ceramill Sintron) and a conventional casting alloy (4-all). Thirty-six cylindrical cores (6.8 × 9 mm) were made of millable and castable alloy through CAD/CAM and casting techniques, respectively (n = 18). In the center of each bar, a 4 × 4 × 2-mm shot of porcelain was fused. Having divided each group into 3 subgroups based on the number of firing cycles (3, 5, 7), the specimens were fixed in a universal testing machine and underwent a shear force test (1.5 mm/min crosshead speed) until fractured. Then the SBS values (MPa) were calculated, and the failure patterns were microscopically characterized as adhesive, cohesive, or mixed. Two-way ANOVA statistical test revealed that the number of porcelain firings had no significant effect on the SBS of any of the metal groups (p = 0.1); however, it was statistically higher in the millable group than the castable group (p < 0.05). Moreover, detecting the mixed failure pattern in all the specimens implied that the multiple firings had no significant effect on the failure pattern. The multiple porcelain firings had no significant effect on the SBS of porcelain to neither the millable nor castable alloys

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Rezaie M, Ghapanchi J, Haghnegahdar A, Khojastehpour L, Khorshidi H, Heidari H. A Radiographic Evaluation of Missing of Permanent First Molars in a Group of Iranian Children and Adults: A Retrospective Study. International Journal of Dentistry. 2018;2018.

The missing of permanent first molars influences the occlusal status and dental health. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of missing first molar teeth in a selected population of Shiraz, Iran. Methods. A total of 2206 panoramic views of patients aged from 7 to 75 years old were inspected for missing of permanent first molars. Patients were categorized into five age groups: from 7 to 15, 16 to 30, 31 to 45, 46 to 60, and more than 60 years old. Data were categorized according to sex, age, and number of lost teeth using SPSS software. Results. No first molar was missing in 59.9% of the cases, 17.05% had lost one, 10.4% had lost two, 7.2% had lost three, and 5% were missing all four of their permanent first molars. The mandibular first molar was the most commonly lost tooth, and the left side in both jaws was more affected than the right side. There was a positive relation between age and missing first molar. Conclusions. A missing first molar is a common finding in southern Iran population. Due to the important role of permanent first molars in occlusion, more education and dental care is recommended to preserve these teeth

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Shafie L, Esmaili S, Parirokh M, Pardakhti A, Nakhaee N, Abbott PV, Barghi H. Efficacy of pre-medication with ibuprofen on post-operative pain after pulpotomy in primary molars. Iranian Endodontic Journal. 2018;13(2):216-20

Pain management following dental procedures, particularly pulpotomies and extraction, is of great importance in pediatric dentistry. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of pre-treatment with ibuprofen on post-operative pain following pulpotomy of primary molars. Methods and Materials: In a split mouth double-blinded randomized clinical trial, 49 children aging between 6-10 years old were given either ibuprofen or a placebo 45 min prior to the treatment. After pulpotomy and placement of a stainless steel crown (SSC), the pain level was evaluated using the Wong-Baker face visual analogue scale for up to 7 days post-treatment. McNemar and Wilcoxon tests were used for data analysis. Results: Forty-five patients were eligible to participate in this study. Pre-medication with ibuprofen significantly reduced pain during the first 24 h posttreatment (P=0.032). However, there was no significant difference in the pain levels between placebo and ibuprofen groups at 48 and 72 h post-treatment (P=0.154 and P=0.197, respectively). The number of times patients needed analgesics in ibuprofen group was significantly lower compared to that in the placebo group (P=0.008). Conclusion: Pre-medication with ibuprofen resulted in less pain following pulpotomy and SSC placement in primary teeth

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Shafiei F, Mohammadparast P, Jowkar Z. Adhesion performance of a universal adhesive in the root canal: Effect of etch-and-rinse vs. self-etch mode. PLoS ONE. 2018;13(4).

Purpose Universal adhesives are new systems that can be used in etch-and-rinse (ER) and self-etch (SE) modes. This in vitro study evaluated the bonding performance of a universal adhesive in ER mode and SE mode with two irrigants for luting fiber posts in the root canal. Materials and methods After separation of the roots from the crowns of 56 maxillary central incisors and endodontic treatment, 10-mm post space was prepared. The roots were divided into seven groups according to irrigant/adhesive protocol used for cementation of posts: 1) sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) irrigant + acid etching + One-Step Plus, 2) NaOCl + Clearfil SE Bond (CSE) and 3) EDTA + CSE as controls; 4) NaOCl + All-Bond Universal (AB) in ER mode, 5) NaOCl + AB in SE mode, 6) EDTA + AB in SE mode, 7) distilled water + AB in SE mode. Posts were luted using Duo-link. The bonded roots were sectioned into microslices. After push-out bond strength (PBS) testing, data in MPa were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and Tukey test (α = 0.05). Results PBS was significantly affected by irrigation/adhesive protocol and root region (P<0.05), with no significant interaction of these factors. PBS of ABU in ER mode with NaOCl and in SE mode with NaOCl or EDTA was comparable to that in the respective controls. The highest and lowest PBSs were recorded for ABU in the SE mode with EDTA (15.38 ± 4) and NaOCl (10.17 ± 3.5), respectively. PBS of AB in ER and SE modes was similar when distilled water was used in the SE mode. Conclusion Adhesive performance of AB in the ER mode was comparable to or different from the SE mode, depending on the irrigant used to prepare post space in SE approach. AB could behave as a reliable bonding for post cementation

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Sardarian A, Ghaderi F. Prediction of the occurrence and severity of mandibular incisor crowding in the early mixed dentition using craniofacial parameters. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics. 2018;153(5):701-7.

With the recent interest in esthetics at an early age, prediction of mandibular incisor crowding is of significant importance. Since dental arch development is related to craniofacial growth, we conducted a cohort study to find a regression model for mandibular incisor crowding based on various craniofacial parameters in children. Methods: A total of 250 children, all in the early mixed dentition, were selected randomly by cluster sampling from primary schools. Craniofacial parameters were measured by a caliper bow, and intercanine widths were measured on dental casts. After a 12-month follow-up period, mandibular incisor crowding and intercanine width were assessed on each subject's dental cast. Discriminant and multiple regression analyses were performed separately for boys and girls. Results: Of 250 children, 148 returned for the 1-year follow-up and met the inclusion criteria. Regression analyses of patients with normal occlusion showed a statistically significant correlation between anterior dental crowding and facial height and bigonial width in both sexes. A significant inverse correlation was found between initial intercanine width and incisor crowding in girls. Furthermore, using the aforementioned parameters, the occurrence of mandibular incisor crowding could be predicted with an accuracy of 92.6%. Conclusions: We found that the occurrence and severity of mandibular incisor crowding in the early mixed dentition can be predicted accurately based on certain craniofacial parameters

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Shafiei F, Saadat M, Jowkar Z. Effect of laser heat treatment on pull-out bond strength of fiber posts treated with different silanes. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry. 2018;10(5):e413-e8

This study evaluated the effect of three different silanes and post-silanization treatments on the retentive strength of fiber posts luted with an etch-and-rinse resin cement. Material and Methods: One hundred intact maxillary central incisors were randomly divided into 10 groups after endodontic treatment and post space preparation (n=10). The fiber posts were etched using 24% hydrogen peroxide. Posts of the control group did not receive silane. In nine experimental groups, each of the three silanes used, Scotchbond Universal adhesive, Bis-Silane and Porcelain Primer, was subjected to three treatments: air-drying at 25°C, warm air-drying and CO2 laser heat treatment. After cementation of the treated posts using One-Step Plus/Duo-Link cement, the specimens were stored for one weak and then subjected to pull-out bond strength (PBS) testing. The data in Newton (N) were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey tests (α=0.05). Results: PBS was significantly affected by silane type and post-silanization treatment (p<0.001). The interaction of the two factors was not statistically significant (p=0.15). The effect of Porcelain Primer on PBS was significantly higher than those of universal adhesive (p<0.001) and Bis-Silane (p=0.01), with similar results for the two latter. Warm air-drying and laser treatment significantly increased PBS (p<0.001). The lowest and highest PBS was obtained in the control (no silane) group (190.9±31) and laser-treated/ Porcelain Primer group (377.1±50), respectively. Conclusions: Warm air-drying and CO2 laser heat treatment had a significantly beneficial effect on retentive strength of fiber posts. Porcelain Primer was significantly more effective than universal adhesive and Bis-Silane

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Gheisari R, Resalati F, Mahmoudi S, Golkari A, Mosaddad SA. Do Different Modes of Delivering Postoperative Instructions to Patients Help Reduce the Side Effects of Tooth Extraction? A Randomized Clinical Trial. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. 2018;76(8):1652.e1-1652.e7.

Purpose: Postoperative instructions that are properly delivered can decrease postextraction side effects, such as stress, anxiety, and pain, in patients undergoing dental extraction. This study examined the role of the mode of delivering postoperative instructions in decreasing the side effects of dental extraction and increasing patient satisfaction after the procedure. Materials and Methods: This randomized clinical trial was conducted on a population of 120 patients presenting to the oral and maxillofacial outpatient clinic affiliated with the Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (Shiraz, Iran) in 2015. The patients were randomly assigned to 3 groups of 40 per group. The first group received only verbal instructions after their surgical procedure. The second group received only written instructions. The third group received verbal and written instructions. Details on the patient's age, gender, and formal education were recorded before the operation using a questionnaire. The second part of the questionnaire was completed by patients 1 week after their tooth extraction and recorded their postoperative pain, bleeding, swelling, and satisfaction. Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test, Kruskal-Wallis test, χ2 test, and analysis of covariance at a significance level of 95%. Results: Of the 120 participants, 77 were women and 43 were men; the participants’ mean age was 36.45 ± 10.69 years. The results showed that the mode of delivering instructions had a marked relation with pain and patient satisfaction. Pain intensity was significantly higher in the verbal instructions group compared with the written instructions (P =.002) and verbal plus written instructions (P =.000) groups. Conclusion: The mode of delivering postoperative instructions meaningfully affected pain intensity and general patient satisfaction. Patients who received verbal instructions reported the most intense pain and the least satisfaction, and patients who received verbal and written instructions were the most satisfied. 

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Ghorbani F, Gheibollahi H, Tavanafar S, Eftekharian HR. Improvement of Esthetic, Functional, and Social Well-Being After Orthognathic Surgical Intervention: A Sampling of Postsurgical Patients Over a 10-Year Period From 2007 to 2017. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. 2018

The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of orthognathic surgery on the long-term quality of life of patients who received this treatment and to delineate the common reasons for dissatisfaction. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, patients who underwent orthognathic surgery were studied. One hundred thirty-two patients who had undergone orthognathic surgery from 2007 to 2017 in the oral and maxillofacial surgery department participated in this study. They were divided based on their dentofacial deformity into those with Class II malocclusion and those with Class III malocclusion. Each participant completed a modified questionnaire used to assess the patient's esthetic, social, and functional abilities after orthognathic surgery. Results: The rate of esthetic improvement in orthognathic surgery patients was 91.7%. No significant difference between male and female patients was found regarding the changes in social, esthetic, and functional aspects before and after orthognathic surgery. Both genders recommended orthognathic surgery for patients with similar problems. One in four patients was dissatisfied with the nasal appearance after the surgical procedure (25.8%). Conclusions: In this study the patients’ satisfaction from the orthognathic surgical procedure was mostly a result of improvements in facial esthetics, followed by psychological well-being and then functional abilities. Most dissatisfaction after the orthognathic surgical procedure was related to nasal appearance

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Mokhtari MJ, Koohpeima F, Hashemi-Gorji F. Association of the Risk of Dental Caries and Polymorphism of MBL2 rs11003125 Gene in Iranian Adults. Caries Research. 2018:60-4.

This case-control study aimed to investigate the effect of rs11003125 in dental caries. For this purpose, a total number of 404 individuals – from Fars Province in Iran – were studied. The technique of this research was the tetra-primer amplification-refractory mutation system (ARMS)-PCR. Dental caries prevalence among the 404 individuals was assessed by counting the number of decayed, missing, and filled teeth. In this research, individuals were divided into two groups: cases (n = 238) and controls (n = 166), and the peripheral blood samples were used to extract the genomic DNA. For genotyping of DNA, the tetra-primer ARMS-PCR method was conducted using specific primer pairs. While examining MBL2 rs11003125 polymorphism, we found significant differences in the genotype frequencies between the case and the control group. The pooled estimates indicated that the GG and GC genotypes of MBL2 rs11003125 polymorphism significantly increased, and therefore caries risk (OR = 2.40, 95% CI = 1.31–4.40, p = 0.004) under the dominant model. These findings suggested that polymorphism in MBL2 gene was associated with dental caries in Iranian adults. Further verification is needed with more ethnic groups and larger sample sizes to determine whether rs11003125 polymorphism is related to dental caries in other regions or not.

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Subject: " Dermatology "

 

 

 

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Subject: " Diagnostic Imaging and Radiotherapy "

 

 

 

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Subject: " Education "

 

Shafakhah M, Molazem Z, Khademi M, Sharif F. Facilitators and inhibitors in developing professional values in nursing students. Nursing Ethics. 2018;25(2):153-64.

Values are the basis of nursing practice, especially in making decisions about complicated ethical issues. Despite their key role in nursing, little information exists on the factors affecting their development and manifestation in nursing students. Objective: This study identifies and describes the facilitators and inhibitors of the development and manifestation of professional values based on the experiences of nursing students and instructors and nurses. Research design: Data were collected through 29 semi-structured interviews and two focus group interviews in 2013–2015 and were analyzed using the conventional content analysis method of Elo and Kyngäs. Participants and research context: In total, 18 nursing undergraduates, five nursing instructors, and five nurses from Shiraz University of Medical Sciences and one of the teaching hospitals in Shiraz were selected through purposive sampling. Ethical considerations: The research was approved by the Ethics Committee of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences and the teaching hospital examined. Findings: The findings consisted of two categories: personal and environmental factors. Personal factors consisted of the two subcategories of personal stimuli (work experience and past relationships, inner beliefs and acting on values, belief in God and a divine worldview) and personal inhibitors (the lack of professional motivation and enthusiasm, negative emotions). Environmental factors consisted of the two subcategories of environmental stimuli (cooperation, order and discipline) and environmental inhibitors (unfavorable work environment, society’s negative attitude toward nursing, the violation of rights). Discussion and conclusion: Given the impact of personal and environmental factors on the development and manifestation of professional values in nursing students, it is upon the education authorities to take account of them in their planning, and nursing managers are also recommended to further address these factors in their development of a proper work environment, provision of standard facilities and removal of barriers

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Torabizadeh C, Homayuni L, Moattari M. Impacts of Socratic questioning on moral reasoning of nursing students. Nursing Ethics. 2018;25(2):174-85

Nurses are often faced with complex situations that made them to make ethical decisions; and to make such decisions, they need to possess the power of moral reasoning. Studies in Iran show that the majority of nursing students lack proper ethical development. Socratic teaching is a student-centered method which is strongly opposed to the lecturing method. Objectives: This study was conducted to evaluate the impacts of Socratic questioning on the moral reasoning of the nursing students. Research design: In a quasi-experimental study, Crisham’s Nursing Dilemma Test was used to evaluate the results of three groups before, immediately after, and 2 months after intervention. The data were analyzed using the SPSS statistical software (v 15). Participants and research context: Through random allocation, 103 nursing students were divided into three groups. In experiment group 1 (37 students), intervention consisted of Socratic questioning-based sessions on ethics and how to deal with moral dilemmas; experiment group 2 (33 students) attended a 4-h workshop; and the control group (33 students) was not subject to any interventions. Signed informed consent forms: This research was approved by the Ethics Committee of the University. All the participants signed written informed consents. Findings: There were significant differences between experiment group 1 and experiment group 2’s pre-test and post-test scores on moral reasoning (p ≤ 0.001, p ≤ 0.001), nursing principled thinking (p ≤ 0.001, p ≤ 0.001), and practical considerations (p ≤ 0.001, p ≤ 0.031). Discussion: Both the teaching approaches improved the subjects’ moral reasoning; however, Socratic questioning proved more effective than lecturing. Compared to other similar studies in Iran and other countries, the students had inadequate moral reasoning competence. Conclusion: This study confirms the need for the development of an efficient course on ethics in the nursing curriculum. Also, it appears that Socratic questioning is an effective method to teach nursing ethics and develop nursing students’ competence of moral reasoning

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   Vizeshfar F, Torabizadeh C. The effect of teaching based on dominant learning style on nursing students' academic achievement. Nurse Education in Practice. 2018;28:103-8.

The recognition of learning styles and teaching based on that recognition will help lecturers use suitable methods of teaching. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of education based on dominant learning styles on the academic achievement of nursing students. The population of this quasi-experimental research consisted of 40 third-semester nursing students. The data were collected by using Kolb's Learning Style questionnaire. To determine the dominant learning style of the students, the researchers had them take a pre-test; then, based on the dominant learning style, the students were taught through group discussion. A formative exam and a summative exam were taken. The most and least preferred learning styles of the participants were the divergent style and the assimilative style respectively. Education based on learning styles, particularly for college students, can not only enhance students' academic achievement and teachers' professional satisfaction, but can help with training professional nurses

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Tehranineshat B, Rakhshan M, Torabizadeh C, Fararouei M. Nurses’, patients’, and family caregivers’ perceptions of compassionate nursing care. Nursing Ethics. 2018.

Compassion is the core of nursing care and the basis of ethical codes. Due to the complex and abstract nature of this concept, there is a need for further investigations to explore the meaning and identify compassionate nursing care. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to identify and describe compassionate nursing care based on the experiences of nurses, patients, and family caregivers. Research design: This was a qualitative exploratory study. Data were analyzed using the conventional content analysis method. Participants and research context: Nurses, hospitalized patients, and family caregivers in different educational hospitals in an urban area of Iran were selected from February 2016 to December 2017 using a purposeful sampling method (n = 34). In-depth and semi-structured interviews, focus group interviews, and field notes were used for data collection. Ethical considerations: The study was approved by the University’s Ethics Committee. The participants were informed about the aim and method of the study, reasons for recording the interviews, confidentiality of data, and voluntary nature of participation in this study. Findings: Data from interviews and filed notes were analyzed and classified into three themes: “effective interaction,” “professionalism,” and “continuous comprehensive care.” Discussion and conclusion: Emerged themes of this study involved holistic care in the current literature on nursing with an emphasis on effective interaction and professionalism. Nurses can understand patients’ and family caregivers’ comprehensive needs through interaction skills. In addition, clinical proficiency, maintaining professional ethics’ standards along with holism, and continuity in care are examples of compassionate care. Education program about compassionate care can enhance the quality of nursing care

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Subject: " Endocrinology and Metabolism "

 

 

 

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Subject: " Endorinology and Metabolism "

 

Gharibzahedi SMT, Roohinejad S, George S, Barba FJ, Greiner R, Barbosa-Cánovas GV, Mallikarjunan K. Innovative food processing technologies on the transglutaminase functionality in protein-based food products: Trends, opportunities and drawbacks. Trends in Food Science and Technology. 2018;75:194-205.

Consumption of protein-based food products has a key role in the improvement of human health. The crosslinking agent microbial transglutaminase (mTGase) is an effective and promising tool to modify animal proteins used in the food industry. Improvement in the gelation process, physicochemical and textural quality, and consumer's demand of protein-based food products could be attained by combining mTGase and some non-conventional food processing technologies. Scope and approach: New perspectives and key areas for future research in the development of high-quality food proteins and protein-based products as a function of interaction effect of mTGase and some new processing techniques (e.g. high pressure processing (HPP), ultrasound, microwave (MW) and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation) are reviewed. The effect of conventional thermal and emerging processing methods on the mTGase crosslinking activity and protein gel functionality are also compared. Key findings and conclusions: The crosslinking density and functional properties of protein gels can be strongly promoted by the synergistic action of mTGase and innovative processing methods. Compared to the conventional heating, HPP with further increase of mTGase affinity to proteins can result in products with better physicochemical quality and more complex and firmer gel structure. The yield, water holding capacity, surface hydrophobicity, strength, and viscoelastic characteristics of mTGase-catalyzed protein gels can be significantly increased by ultrasonication treatments. mTGase-crosslinked hydrogels subjected to high-intensity ultrasonic pretreatment have potential to be used as delivery vehicles for a wide spectrum of bioactive compounds. The application of MW and UV light can substantially improve the surface, textural and structural features of gels generated by mTGase-technology

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Hajimonfarednejad M, Ostovar M, Raee MJ, Hashempur MH, Mayer JG, Heydari M. Cinnamon: A systematic review of adverse events. Clinical Nutrition. 2018.

Cinnamon, from the genus Cinnamomum and Lauraceae family, has been used as a popular spice for thousands of years around the world. Many studies have shown therapeutic effects of cinnamon including its antimicrobial, antiviral, antifungal, antioxidant, antitumor, antihypertensive, antilipemic, antidiabetic, gastroprotective, and immunomodulatory effects. Due to popular use of cinnamon and several human reports on adverse events associated with short or long term use of cinnamon, we aimed to systematically review its human reports of adverse event. Databases including Medline, Scopus, Science Direct, Embase, PubMed Central and Google scholar were searched using the key words “cinnamon” or “cinnamomum” for clinical trials, case reports and case series. Also spontaneous reports about adverse effects of cinnamon were collected from five national and international spontaneous reporting schemes. Thirty eight clinical trials were found, five of them reported adverse events. Twenty case reports and seven case series, as well as, spontaneous reports including 160 adverse events were also included. The most frequent adverse events were gastrointestinal disorders and allergic reactions which were self-limiting in the majority of cases. The available data suggests that despite the safety of cinnamon use as a spice and/or flavoring agent, its use may be associated with significant adverse effects in medicinal uses with larger doses or longer duration of use and should be clinically monitored

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Zare R, Nadjarzadeh A, Zarshenas MM, Shams M, Heydari M. Efficacy of cinnamon in patients with type II diabetes mellitus: A randomized controlled clinical trial. Clinical Nutrition. 2018

Multiple studies have evaluated the hypoglycemic effect of cinnamon in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) type II, with conflicting results. Differences in Baseline Body Mass Index (BMI) of patients may be able to explain the observed differences in the results. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of cinnamon supplementation on anthropometric, glycemic and lipid outcomes of patients with DM type II based on their baseline BMI. Methods: The study was designed as a triple-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial, using a parallel design. One hundred and forty patients referred to Diabetes Clinic of Yazd University of Medical Sciences with diagnosis of DM type II were randomly assigned in four groups: cinnamon (BMI ≥ 27, BMI < 27) and Placebo (BMI ≥ 27, BMI < 27). Patients received cinnamon bark powder or placebo in 500 mg capsules twice daily for 3 months. Anthropometric, glycemic and lipid outcomes were measured before and after the intervention. Result: Cinnamon supplementation led to improvement of all anthropometric (BMI, body fat, and visceral fat), glycemic (FPG, 2hpp, HbA1C, Fasting Insulin, and Insulin Resistance), and lipids (Cholesterol Total, LDL-c and HDL-c) outcomes (except for triglycerides level). All observed changes (except for Cholesterol Total and LDL-c) were significantly more prominent in patients with higher baseline BMI (BMI ≥ 27). Conclusion: Based on the study findings, cinnamon may improve anthropometric parameters, glycemic indices and lipid profile of patients with type II diabetes. These benefits are significantly more prominent in patients with higher baseline BMI (BMI ≥ 27). The trial protocol was registered in Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials database (registration ID: IRCT2017031133015N1)

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Mohammadi-Sartang M, Bellissimo N, Totosy de Zepetnek JO, Brett NR, Mazloomi SM, Fararouie M, Bedeltavana A, Famouri M, Mazloom Z. The effect of daily fortified yogurt consumption on weight loss in adults with metabolic syndrome: A 10-week randomized controlled trial. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases. 2018;28(6):565-74

Obesity is a complex and multifaceted condition. Thus, functional foods need investigation as novel adjunct treatments for obesity. The objective was to determine the effects of daily consumption of a fortified yogurt (FY) on weight loss in overweight and obese patients with metabolic syndrome on a caloric-restricted diet. Methods and Results: This was a randomized, double-blind, 10-week study. Participants were randomly allocated to two groups receiving either two servings (2 × 250 g)/day of FY with whey protein, calcium, vitamin D, prebiotic fibre and probiotic cultures (n = 44) or a low-fat plain yogurt (PY) (n = 43). All participants were put on a calorie-restricted diet throughout the 10-week study. Body composition and biochemical indices were assessed before and after the intervention. Body mass decreased by 4.3 ± 1.9 kg and 5.1 ± 3.0 kg in the PY and FY groups, respectively, following the 10-week intervention. Compared to PY, consumption of FY resulted in a significant reduction in body fat mass (FM) (p = 0.023), body fat percentage (p = 0.028), waist circumference (p = 0.002), homoeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (p = 0.025), triglyceride concentration (p = 0.003), and a significant increase in total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration (p < 0.001), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) (p = 0.009) and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) (0.022). Participants consuming the FY lost less fat-free mass (FFM) compared to the PY group (Δ = −0.9 ± 3.5 kg vs. Δ = −2.0 ± 2.7 kg; p = 0.025). Conclusions: Consuming FY for 10-weeks improved body composition and metabolic parameters, while on a caloric-restricted diet. Further research is needed to elucidate whether FY can be used as a preventative strategy for metabolic syndrome in obese persons. Trial registration: www.irct.ir (IRCT2017050633836N1)

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Mohammadi-Sartang M, Sohrabi Z, Barati-Boldaji R, Raeisi-Dehkordi H, Mazloom Z. Flaxseed supplementation on glucose control and insulin sensitivity: A systematic review and meta-analysis of 25 randomized, placebo-controlled trials. Nutrition Reviews. 2018;76(2):125-39

The results of human clinical trials investigating the effects of flaxseed on glucose control and insulin sensitivity are inconsistent. Objective: The present study aimed to systematically review and analyze randomized controlled trials assessing the effects of flaxseed consumption on glycemic control. Data Sources: PubMed, Medline via Ovid, SCOPUS, EMBASE, and ISI Web of Sciences databases were searched up to November 2016. Study Selection: Clinical trials in which flaxseed or its products were administered as an intervention were included. Data Extraction: The outcomes were fasting blood glucose, insulin concentration, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), insulin sensitivity (QUIKI), and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Results: A total of 25 randomized clinical trials (30 treatment arms) were included. Meta-analysis suggested a significant association between flaxseed supplementation and a reduction in blood glucose (weighted mean difference [WMD],-2.94mg/dL; 95%CI, -5.31 to-0.56; P=0.015), insulin levels (WMD, -7.32pmol/L; 95%CI,-11.66 to-2.97; P=0.001), and HOMA-IR index (WMD, -0.49; 95%CI,:-0.78 to-0.20; P=0.001) and an increase in QUIKI index (WMD, 0.019; 95%CI, 0.008-0.031; P=0.001). No significant effect on HbA1c (WMD, -0.045%; 95%CI,-0.16 to-0.07; P=0.468) was found. In subgroup analysis, a significant reduction in blood glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR and a significant increase in QUIKI were found only in studies using whole flaxseed but not flaxseed oil and lignan extract. Furthermore, a significant reduction was observed in insulin levels and insulin sensitivity indexes only in the subset of trials lasting≥12 weeks. Conclusions: Whole flaxseed, but not flaxseed oil and lignan extract, has significant effects on improving glycemic control. Further studies are needed to determine the benefits of flaxseed on glycemic parameters

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Akhlaghi M, Ghobadi S, Mohammad Hosseini M, Gholami Z, Mohammadian F. Flavanols are potential anti-obesity agents, a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases ,2018: 28(7): 675-90.

The anti-obesity potential of flavonoids has been shown by animal and human studies. In this meta-analysis, we systematically reviewed controlled clinical trials and quantified the effects of flavonoids and flavonoid subclasses on obesity-related anthropometric measures. Methods and results: PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, and ProQuest databases were searched to identify trials examining the effect of flavonoids on body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and body fat percentage. Fifty eight trials passed the eligibility process. Analysis endpoints were calculated as the mean difference between baseline and post-treatment. Flavonoids were in subclasses of flavanols, flavonols, isoflavones, flavanones, anthocyanins, and proanthocyanidins. They were mostly in the form of supplements and dosages varying from 40 to 1300 mg/day. Among flavonoid subclasses, flavanols showed potential for decreasing BMI, in the overall population (mean difference (MD) = −0.28 kg/m2, P = 0.04; n = 21) and in the subgroups of Asians (MD = −0.42 kg/m2; P = 0.046; n = 13), ages < 50 years (MD = −0.50 kg/m2; P = 0.008; n = 14), BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 (MD = −0.30 kg/m2; P = 0.049; n = 15), and at doses ≥ 500 mg/day (MD = −0.36 kg/m2; P = 0.049; n = 12). Isoflavones also decreased BMI of non-Asian populations (MD = −0.26 kg/m2; P = 0.035; n = 13) and doses ≥ 75 mg/day (MD = −0.34 kg/m2; P = 0.027; n = 8). In the overall assessment, flavanols also decreased waist circumference (MD = −0.60 cm; P = 0.02; n = 18) but had no significant effect on body fat percentage. The available trials did not reveal significant effects from flavonols, flavanones, and anthocyanins on the specified anthropometric measures. Conclusions: Overall results of this meta-analysis showed that flavanols have potential against obesity.

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Atefi M, Pishdad GR, Faghih S. The effects of canola and olive oils on insulin resistance, inflammation and oxidative stress in women with type 2 diabetes: a randomized and controlled trial. Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders. 2018:1-7.

A number of studies have shown that consumption of vegetable oils may improve diabetes complications including inflammatory response and oxidative stress, but no study has been done on the effects of canola oil (CO) and olive oil (OO) consumption in patients with type 2 diabetes. This clinical trial was done to compare the effects of CO and OO on insulin resistance, inflammation and oxidative stress in women with type 2 diabetes. Methods: This randomized controlled clinical trial was done on 77 type 2 diabetic women. 4 weeks before the intervention, lipid-lowering drugs intakes were cut under the supervision of an endocrinologist. The participants were randomly divided into 2 intervention groups (Balanced diet +30 g/day CO or OO) and one control group (Balanced diet +30 g/day of sunflower oil (SFO)). Dietary intakes were assessed using three 24-h food records at baseline and at weeks 4 and 8 of the interventions. At baseline and after 8 weeks, height, weight, waist circumference, fasting blood sugar (FBS), serum insulin, C-reactive protein (CRP) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured. Results: After the intervention in the inter-group analysis, CRP level was reduced significantly in CO and OO groups but no significant changes were observed in other factors. CRP reductions were also significant between all of the groups but not for other factors. Conclusions: Replacing CO and OO with SFO as part of daily dietary fat in the diet of people with type 2 diabetes is recommended for reducing Inflammation and Oxidative Stress. Trial registration.This study is approved by the Ethics Committee of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (IR.SUMS.REC.1394.27) and is recorded in the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT2015062722818N1).

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Akbari M, Ostadmohammadi V, Tabrizi R, Mobini M, Lankarani KB, Moosazadeh M, Heydari ST, Chamani M, Kolahdooz F, Asemi Z. The effects of alpha-lipoic acid supplementation on inflammatory markers among patients with metabolic syndrome and related disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Nutrition and Metabolism. 2018;15(1).

This systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to determine the effect of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) supplementation on the inflammatory markers among patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and related disorders. Methods: We searched the following databases until November 2017: PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Three reviewers independently assessed study eligibility, extracted data, and evaluated risk of bias of included primary studies. Statistical heterogeneity was assessed using Cochran's Q test and I-square (I2) statistic. Data were pooled by using the random-effect model and standardized mean difference (SMD) was considered as the summary effect size. Results: Eighteen trials out of 912 potential citations were found to be eligible for our meta-analysis. The findings indicated that ALA supplementation significantly decreased C-reactive protein (CRP) (SMD = - 1.52; 95% CI, - 2.25, - 0.80; P < 0.001), interlokin-6 (IL-6) (SMD = - 1.96; 95% CI, - 2.60, - 1.32; P < 0.001), and tumor necrosis factor alpha levels (TNF-α) (SMD = - 2.62; 95% CI, - 3.70, - 1.55; P < 0.001) in patients diagnosed with metabolic diseases. Conclusion: In summary, the current meta-analysis demonstrated the promising impact of ALA administration on decreasing inflammatory markers such as CRP, IL-6 and TNF-α among patients with MetS and related disorders.

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Subject: " Gastrointestinal System "

 

Farpour S, Farpour HR, Smithard D, Kardeh B, Ghazaei F, Zafarghasempour M. Dysphagia Management in Iran: Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Healthcare Providers. Dysphagia. 2018:1-7

Despite the remarkable burden of dysphagia, appropriate multidisciplinary management is lacking in Iran and patients are often deprived of effective treatments. Obtaining a full understanding of knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of healthcare providers is necessary to determine the gaps in improvement of the quality of care for dysphagic patients. A questionnaire was designed covering demographic information and the parameters of KAP. Face and content validity were determined. Test–retest reliability confirmed that the questionnaire scores are stable over time (r = 0.77, p value < 0.01). Participants were healthcare providers employed in university-affiliated hospitals in three major cities of Iran; Tehran, Shiraz and Mashhad. In total, 312 healthcare professionals completed our survey. The majority (96.8%) were familiar with the term “dysphagia or swallowing disorders”. Most of the participants believed their profession (88.5%), as well as other disciplines (92.3%) can play an important role in the management of dysphagia; and this problem should be recognized in a multidisciplinary manner (96.2%). Also, 60.9% had encountered a patient with dysphagia. 52.2% had used at least one assessment method, while 49.9% had applied at least one treatment method. However, very few participants were familiar with a standard test for screening and assessment of dysphagia (11.9%). 74.7% were willing to participate in a workshop on dysphagia. As the main pitfalls of care lie in diagnosis and treatment expertise, the policy of hospitals should prioritize educating and updating the skills of healthcare professionals, encourage multidisciplinary teamwork, establishing clear guidelines and facilitate access to advanced tools

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Kitajima T, Sakamoto S, Sasaki K, Narumoto S, Kazemi K, Hirata Y, Fukuda A, Imai R, Miyazaki O, Irie R, Teramukai S, Uemoto S, Kasahara M. Impact of graft thickness reduction of left lateral segment on outcomes following pediatric living donor liver transplantation. American Journal of Transplantation. 2018

Reducing graft thickness is essential to prevent large-for-size graft problems in pediatric living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). However, long-term outcomes of LDLT using reduced-thickness left lateral segment (LLS) grafts are unclear. In 89 patients who underwent LDLT using reduced LLS grafts between 2005 and 2017, short-term and long-term outcomes were compared between a nonanatomically reduced LLS (NAR-LLS) graft group and a reduced-thickness LLS graft group. Estimated blood loss was lower and abdominal skin closure was less needed in the recipient operation in the reduced-thickness LLS graft group. Postoperatively, portal vein (PV) flow was significantly decreased in the NAR-LLS graft group, and there was shorter intensive care unit (ICU) stay and fewer postoperative complications, especially bacteremia, in the reduced-thickness LLS graft group. Graft survival at 1 and 3 years after LDLT using reduced-thickness LLS grafts was 95.2% and 92.4%, respectively, which was significantly better than for NAR-LLS grafts. Multivariate analysis revealed that fulminant liver failure, hepatofugal PV flow before LDLT, and NAR-LLS graft were associated with poor graft survival. In conclusion, LDLT using reduced-thickness LLS grafts is a safe and feasible option with better short- and long-term outcomes in comparison with NAR-LLS grafts

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Subject: " Genitourinary System "

 

Movahhedian N, Haghnegahdar A, Owji F. How the prevalence of pulp stone in a population predicts the risk for kidney stone. Iranian Endodontic Journal. 2018;13(2):246-50.

Conflicting researches exist on relationship between pulp stones and systemic disorders. Nephrolithiasis is a common disease with severe pain and discomfort with increasing prevalence worldwide. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the correlation between pulp and kidney stones to help find a method for early detection of kidney stones. Methods and Materials: the sample of this case-control study comprised of 154 subjects (77 patients with and 77 patients without kidney stone approved by sonographic examination). Two oral and maxillofacial radiologists evaluated their panoramic images for the presence of pulpal stones. Results: A total of 42.9% of subjects showed pulp stones. Most of the teeth with pulp stone in case and control groups were molars (86.30% and 72.97%, respectively). In the group with kidney stones, pulp stones were detected in 38 patients (49.4%), while in the control group, they were detected in 28 subjects (36.4%). Although there was not a significant relationship between the presence/absence of pulp stone and kidney stone (P=0.143), there was statistically significant association between number of teeth with pulp stone in a patient and the presence of kidney stone (P<0.013). The chance of having kidney stone is 5.78 times higher in the subjects having pulp stone in three teeth or more (4 3 teeth). Conclusion: Although there is not a correlation between the presence of pulp and kidney stone, the chance of having kidney stone is 5.78 times higher in the subjects with 4 3 teeth having pulp stone. Thus, the number of teeth with pulp stone can serve as a predictor for possibility of having kidney stone

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Rahmani E, Eftekhari MH, Fallahzadeh MH, Fararouei M, Massoumi SJ. Effect of vitamin D and omega-3 on nocturnal enuresis of 7–15-year-old children. Journal of Pediatric Urology.2018;14(3):257.

Nocturnal enuresis is known to be a common urinary bladder complication in children. Recent studies have associated vitamin D and omega-3 insufficiency with nocturnal enuresis. Aim: This was a 2-month randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial to measure the effects of vitamin D, omega-3 supplements, and their combination on nocturnal enuresis among 7–15-year-old children. Materials and methods: Participants (180 children with nocturnal enuresis) were selected from children referred to the Pediatric ward of Imam Reza Clinic in Shiraz, Iran. Demographic information and anthropometric measures were taken. Fasting blood and urine samples were also collected, and serum vitamin D and urine prostaglandin E2 were measured before and after intervention. Enuretic children were randomly assigned to four groups: Group A, vitamin D (1000 IU/day); Group B, omega-3 (1000 mg/day); Group C, both omega-3 (1000 mg/day) and vitamin D (1000 IU/day); and Group D, placebo. Results: The results suggested that the study groups were not significantly different regarding demographic and anthropometric measures at baseline. Comparison of different groups revealed that 44.4% of participants in Group A, 28.2% of Group B and 45% of Group C were cured from enuresis (P = 0.03). Serum 25(OH) D was significantly increased in Group A, but urine prostaglandin E2 was not significantly decreased in response to supplementation. Although supplementation with both Group A and Group B were found to be effective, the combined intervention did not increase the effect of each intervention solely. Conclusions: The results showed that supplementation with vitamin D and omega-3 could reduce the number of wet nights among 7–15-year-old children with nocturnal enuresis

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Zeighami S, Azizzadeh E, Tabatabaee HR, Adib A, Babaei AH, Ariafar A. Opium and grade of urothelial bladder cancer. Journal of Nephropathology. 2018;7(2):69-73.

Bladder cancer is a serious global problem. Although the risk factors of bladder cancer have been found through many studies, the effect of them on the grade of this cancer has not been focused previously. Objectives: This study was conducted to evaluate the association of some risk factors of urothelial bladder cancer on its grade. Patients and Methods: The patients with proved diagnosis of urothelial carcinoma of bladder were enrolled in this study. They were divided into case group (those with high-grade bladder cancer) and control group (those with low-grade bladder cancer). Each of case and control groups contained 103 patients. Age, gender, place of residence, cigarette smoking state, opium consumption state, occupation, previous exposure to poisons or chemicals, and family history of bladder cancer were compared between the case and control groups. Results: Eighty-two patients (79.6%) of the case group and 87(84.5%) of the control group were male. The mean age of the case group was significantly higher than control group (66.1 ± 11.8 and 61.7 ± 14.2, respectively; P = 0.003). The results of this study showed that ever usage of opium was significantly higher in the case group (OR = 2.97; 95% CI: 1.64- 5.38; P <0.001). Although mean pack-years of cigarette smoking of case group was significantly higher than control group in univariate analysis (P = 0.009), it was omitted from regression models when multivariate analysis was applied. Conclusions: High grade urothelial bladder cancer has been significantly associated with opium usage and older ages.

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Aminsharifi A, Monsef A, Noorafshan A, Karbalay-Doust S, Jafarinezhad Z, Koohi-Hosseinabadi O, Molaei A. Effects of Intratesticular Hematoma on Testis Microstructure, Spermatogenesis, and Testosterone Production: Defining a Cutoff Point for Significant Intratesticular Hematoma. Urology. 2018:80-6

To evaluate the effects of different degrees of intratesticular hematoma (ITH), a major consequence of blunt testis trauma, on testis microstructure and function. We determined a cutoff point for significant vs nonsignificant ITH. Methods: Seventy male rats were divided into 7 equal groups. The control group remained intact. Sham groups consisted of rats given an intratesticular injection of normal saline in both testicles with volumes equivalent to 40% (group II), 30% (group III), and 10% (group IV) of testis volume. Bilateral ITH was created by the intratesticular injection of autologous blood equivalent to 40% (group V), 30% (group VI), and 10% (group VII) of testicular volume. After 60 days of recovery, testes volume, microstructure, semen parameters, and serum testosterone were recorded. Results: The most severe destructive effects were observed in groups V and VI. Testes, tubule, and epithelium volumes were reduced between 16.6% and 58.8%. The number of the spermatogenic, Sertoli, and Leydig cells was reduced between 47.5% and 73.1% in group V. Significant volume-dependent decreases in spermatozoa counts were seen in all groups except group IV after injection of different amounts of normal saline or blood. This reduction was most prominent after injections equivalent to 40% of testis volume (groups II and V). There was a nonsignificant trend toward lower testosterone level in groups V and VI. Conclusion: ITH has significant volume-dependent detrimental effects on testis microstructure, semen parameters, and testosterone level. ITH equivalent to 10% of testis volume may be relatively well-tolerated, but the effects can be significant when ITH is ≥30% of testis volume

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Ebrahim-Saraie HS, Nezhad NZ, Heidari H, Motamedifar A, Motamedifar M. Detection of antimicrobial susceptibility and integrons among extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing uropathogenic escherichia coli isolates in Southwestern Iran. Oman Medical Journal. 2018;33(3):218-23

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most prevalent infectious diseases and can lead to a high rate of morbidity and mortality. The emergence of multiple-drug resistant strains, particularly extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) producing strains, has become a global healthcare concern. Our study sought to investigate the antimicrobial resistance pattern and presence of integrons and fimH determinants among uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) isolates obtained from hospitalized Iranian patients. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 121 E. coli isolates recovered from patients with clinical symptoms of UTIs, referred to Shiraz Nemazee Hospital, in 2016–17. The isolates were identified by standard microbiologic tests and confirmed by API 20E strip. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was determined using the disk diffusion method. The presence of fimH and classes 1–3 integron encoding genes was determined using the polymerase chain reaction. Results: Ampicillin (9.1%) and nalidixic acid (19.0%) showed the lowest level of antibiotic susceptibility. The highest level of susceptibility was toward imipenem (77.7%). The rate of ESBL-producing isolates was 42.1%. There was a significant association between production of ESBLs and higher antibiotic resistance in the tested isolates. Of the investigated virulence and resistance genes, fimH, intI1, and intI2 were positive in 98.3%, 59.5%, and 7.4% of isolates, respectively. Conclusions: The remarkable rate of ESBL-producing UPEC isolates accompanied with the presence of integrons suggest the necessity of restricted infection control policies to prevent further dissemination of resistant strains

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Subject: " Heart and Blood "

 

Nikoo MH, Attar A, Pourmontaseri M, Jorat MV, Kafi M. Atrioventricular nodal echoes over a wide echo window as a therapeutic end point for the catheter-guided radiofrequency ablation of atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia: A prospective study. Europace. 2018;20(4):659-64

Aims In previous retrospective studies, it was shown that the presence of residual single atrioventricular node (AVN) echoes with an echo zone longer than 30 ms may increase the rate of recurrence after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of slow pathway in patients with AVN reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT). Based on that, some centres perform additional RFA in these patients. However, this opinion has never been tested prospectively and many centres do not perform re-ablation in these patients. The purpose of this study was to test whether persistence of a single AVN echo over a wide echo zone is a valid end point for RFA. Methods and results In this prospective study, 576 patients who had a non-inducible arrhythmia post-RFA of AVNRT were divided into those with a remnant echo over a wide echo zone (case group) and those reaching classical end points (control group). The primary end point of the study was recurrence and patients were followed for 34.5 ± 18.8 months. In the control group (n = 510), 14 patients (2.7%) had a recurrence while no recurrence was seen in the case group (n = 66) (final cure rate, 97.3 vs. 100%; difference, 2.7%; upper bound of the 98% CI, 0.0488; P < 0.0001 for non-inferiority). Two complete heart blocks (0.4%) happened in the control group and none in the case group (P = 0.784). Conclusion Non-inducibility in the presence of a wide echo window is non-inferior to non-inducibility in the presence of narrow echo window or no AVN echoes. In general, the presence of a single echo beat is not an indication for further ablation and this applies for both narrow and wide windows

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Najafi A, Faghih S, Hojhabrimanesh A, Najafi M, Tangestani H, Atefi M, Teymouri M, Salehi M, Kamali M, Amanat S, Akhlaghi M. Greater adherence to the dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) dietary pattern is associated with lower blood pressure in healthy Iranian primary school children. European Journal of Nutrition. 2018;57(4):1449-58

The dietary determinants of children blood pressure (BP) are poorly understood. We examined the association between adherence to the dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) dietary pattern and BP in healthy Iranian primary school children. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among a representative sample (n = 407) of healthy Shirazi students aged 6–12 years. Subjects’ systolic and diastolic BP were measured by a validated oscillometric BP monitor. Usual dietary intakes over the past 12 months were assessed using a valid and reproducible 168-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire via face-to-face interviews. A DASH score was calculated for each subject based on his/her energy-adjusted intakes of 8 major dietary components emphasized or minimized in the DASH dietary pattern. The higher the DASH score of a subject, the more his/her adherence to the DASH dietary pattern. Results: After controlling for several potential confounders in the analysis of covariance models, multivariable-adjusted means of systolic and mean BP of subjects in the highest tertile of DASH score were significantly lower than those in the lowest tertile (for systolic BP: mean difference −6.2 mmHg, P = 0.010; and for mean BP: mean difference −5.4 mmHg, P = 0.013). Furthermore, a similar but statistically insignificant difference was found in terms of multivariable-adjusted means of diastolic BP (mean difference −3.9 mmHg, P = 0.146). Conclusions: The findings suggest that greater adherence to the DASH dietary pattern is associated with lower BP in healthy Iranian primary school children. However, future prospective studies of adequate methodological quality are warranted to confirm these findings

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Negahdary M, Behjati-Ardakani M, Sattarahmady N, Heli H. An aptamer-based biosensor for troponin i detection in diagnosis of myocardial infarction. Journal of Biomedical Physics and Engineering. 2018;8(2):167-78.

Acute myocardial infarction (MI) accounts for one third of deaths. Cardiac troponin I (TnI) is a reliable biomarker of cardiac muscle tissue injury and is employed in the early diagnosis of MI. Objective: In this study, a molecular method is introduced to early diagnosis of MI by rapid detection of TnI. Materials and Methods: The detection method was based on electrochemical aptasensing, being developed using different methods and evaluation steps. A gold electrode was used as a transducer to successful immobilize 76base aptamer to fabricate a TnI biosensor. Results: The designed aptasensor could detect TnI in a range of 0.03 to 2.0 ng mL-1 without using any label, pre-concentration or amplification steps. The limit of detection was attained as 10 pg mL-1 without significant trouble of interfering species. The TnI biosensor demonestrated a stable, regenerative and reproducible function. 89 human samples were used to evaluate the performance of the TnI biosensor, and it represented 100% and 81%, diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, respectively. Conclusion: This aptasensor may be used as an applicable tool in the future of early medical diagnosis of MI.

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Subject: " Internal Medicine "

 

Jafari SH, Saadatpour Z, Salmaninejad A, Momeni F, Mokhtari M, Nahand JS, Rahmati M, Mirzaei H, Kianmehr M. Breast cancer diagnosis: Imaging techniques and biochemical markers. Journal of Cellular Physiology. 2018;233(7):5200-13.

Breast cancer is a complex disease which is found as the second cause of cancer-associated death among women. Accumulating of evidence indicated that various factors (i.e., gentical and envirmental factors) could be associated with initiation and progression of breast cancer. Diagnosis of breast cancer patients in early stages is one of important aspects of breast cancer treatment. Among of various diagnosis platforms, imaging techniques are main diagnosis approaches which could provide valuable data on patients with breast cancer. It has been showed that various imaging techniques such as mammography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron-emission tomography (PET), Computed tomography (CT), and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) could be used for diagnosis and monitoring patients with breast cancer in various stages. Beside, imaging techniques, utilization of biochemical biomarkers such as proteins, DNAs, mRNAs, and microRNAs could be employed as new diagnosis and therapeutic tools for patients with breast cancer. Here, we summarized various imaging techniques and biochemical biomarkers could be utilized as diagnosis of patients with breast cancer. Moreover, we highlighted microRNAs and exosomes as new diagnosis and therapeutic biomarkers for monitoring patients with breast cancer

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Nazari-Vanani R, Vais RD, Sharifi F, Sattarahmady N, Karimian K, Motazedian MH, Heli H. Investigation of anti-leishmanial efficacy of miltefosine and ketoconazole loaded on nanoniosomes. Acta Tropica. 2018;185:69-76

Leishmaniasis is a group of parasitic disease caused by protozoa of Leishmania genus. Leishmania major accounts for the cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). The current treatments of this disease are expensive with high toxicity and are associated to difficulties of healing and parasite resistance. Miltefosine and ketoconazole have been found to be effective against CL. In this study, miltefosine- and ketoconazole-loaded nanoniosomes were prepared by the thin film-hydration method, and their anti-leishmanial effects against Leishmania major promastigotes and amastigotes were evaluated. The particle size and zeta potential of the nanoniosomes were determined. Release from the formulations showed enhanced and controlled dissolution of the drugs. The miltefosine- and ketoconazole-loaded nanoniosomes inhibited the growth of promastigote and amastigote forms of Leishmania major in vitro after 48 h of incubation and had IC50 values of 53.39 ± 0.02 and 86.38 ± 0.07 μg mL−1, respectively. The formulations provided improved anti-leishmanial activities for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis

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Davarpanah M, Motazedian N, Jowkar F. Dermatological manifestations of HIV/AIDS individuals in Shiraz, South of Iran. Journal of Global Infectious Diseases. 2018;10(2):80-3

HIV infection remains as a major challenge facing medical sciences in the world today. Mucocutaneous manifestation was first observed in patients with HIV/AIDS in the early 1980s. The aim of this study was to identify various skin manifestations based on making careful clinical observations and performing the necessary tests. Materials and Methods: A total of 240 patients whose disease was diagnosed using WB and ELISA tests, with dermatologic manifestations and were older than 18 years, participated in this study. These patients had referred to the voluntary counseling and testing center in Shiraz for routine examinations. Results: From the total of 240 participants, 158 were males (65.8%) and 82 were females (34.2%). The mean age was 40.87 ± 8.04 years. Dermatologic manifestations were of infectious origin in 79 (33%) of the participants. As the most common viral skin infections, herpes simplex was seen in 16 patients (6.7%), with herpes zoster ranking second with 15 patients (6.3%). No relationship was found between CD4 cell count and infectious or noninfectious dermatologic manifestations (P = 0.274). Conclusion: No association was found between CD4 cell counts and dermatologic manifestations. Many skin disorders may appear in HIV/AIDS patients with normal CD4 cell counts

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Delshadi-Jahromi N, Nazari-Vanani R, Yadegari H, Sattarahmady N, Hatam GR, Heli H. Label-free ultrasensitive electrochemical genosensing of Trichomonas vaginalis using anisotropic-shaped gold nanoparticles as a platform, a repeated sequence of the parasite DNA as a probe, and toluidine blue as a redox marker. Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical. 2018;273:234-41

The widespread bacteria, parasites and viruses are considered as the potential sources of infections which can endanger the public health. Accordingly, sensitive, rapid and cost-effective analysis methods are required for identification of the pathogens to achieve an improved quality of life. Trichomonas vaginalis is among the commonly colonizing parasite which threatens human health by causing Trichomoniasis infection. In the present study, we demonstrate the fabrication and application of a novel electrochemical genosensor based on an electrodeposited gold nanostructure as a transducer combined with toluidine blue (TB) as a redox marker. A specific DNA sequence was immobilized on the transducer and the hybridization process was detected using differential pulse voltammetry. The genosensor showed excellent performance towards detection of TV with high sensitivity and good selectivity. A linear correlation was obtained between the electrochemical response of the genosensor with a complementary-sequence DNA concentration in the range of 1.0 × 10−19 to 1.0 × 10−12 mol L−1 with a limit of detection as low as 3.1 × 10−20 mol L−1. Moreover, the prepared genosensor could discriminate between the complementary-sequence, base-mismatched-sequences and a non-complementary-sequence oligonucleotides via TB binding. Comparison of the actual human samples analyzed by both the prepared genosensor and the standard gel electrophoresis confirmed the practical applicability of the genosensor

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Gorgizadeh M, Azarpira N, Sattarahmady N. In vitro and in vivo tumor annihilation by near-infrared photothermal effect of a NiFe2O4/C nanocomposite. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces. 2018;170:393-400

Nanothechnology-mediated photothermal therapy (PTT) is emerging as one of the inspiring alternative modality of cancer therapy that applies near-infrared radiation. High favorability of this approach is due to its minimum invasiveness, safety of non-targeted area, quick recovery, and capable simultaneous imaging. In this approach, photoabsorbing nanomaterials convert energy of infrared light to vibrational motion and generate heat. In the present study, a nanocomposite comprised nickel ferrite and carbon (NiFe2O4/C) was synthesized, characterized and introduced as a novel photoabsorbing agent in cancer phototherapy. NiFe2O4/C was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction patterns. A diode laser of 808 nm with a power density of 1.0 W cm−2 was selected as the light source to evaluate the photothermal property of NiFe2O4/C toward cancer repression in C540 (B16/F10) cell line and melanoma bearing tumor model in male balb/c mice. Temperature enhancement ability of NiFe2O4/C confirmed its photoabsorbing property. While NiFe2O4/C had a concentration dependent cytotoxicity on C540 (B16/F10) cell line, PTT of NiFe2O4/C activated by laser irradiation showed its destroying effect on the C540 (B16/F10) cell line. On the other hand, histological analyses and tumor volume changes were performed for the in vivo PTT of NiFe2O4/C upon intratumoral injection. The results showed that after 24 h, PTT of the nanocomposite cured the tumor properly, whereas NiFe2O4/C injection or laser exposure alone had no treatment effect. Also, 5-day post-treating the melanoma bearing tumor model indicated that the level of necrosis significantly increased during this time in the PTT treated mouse. Therefore, PTT using NiFe2O4/C is proposed as a promising procedure for the melanoma cancer therapy

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Hamzavi SS, Sanaei Dashti A, Kadivar MR, Pouladfar G, Pourabbas B. Successful Treatment of Disseminated Cutaneous Leishmaniasis with Liposomal Amphotericin B and Miltefosine in an Eight-year-old Girl. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. 2018;37(3):275-7

This case report presents an 8-year-old girl, from Fars province in Iran, diagnosed with cutaneous leishmaniasis in the form of multiple nodular, ulcerative and crusted lesions disseminated on the face, trunk and extremities. The result of direct smear of ulcers was positive for Leishmania parasite. The patient had no immunodeficiency or relevant family history making her susceptible for disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis. The skin lesions failed to respond to multiple treatment courses of meglumine antimoniate or amphotericin B but were successfully treated with simultaneous miltefosine and liposomal amphotericin B.

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Kalantari M, Motazedian MH, Asgari Q, Mohammadpour I, Soltani A, Azizi K. Co-detection and isolation of Leishmania and Crithidia among naturally infected Tatera indica (Rodentia: Muridae) in Fars province, southern Iran. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. 2018;8(5):279-84

To explore the co-detection of natural infection of Trypanosomatidae parasites such as Leishmania and Crithidia in reservoir hosts of leishmaniasis. Methods: Rodent populations were monitored in two endemic foci of cutaneous leishmaniasis of Fars province, southern Iran from March to October 2016. Rodents were trapped alive in several parts of Shiraz and Kharameh cities. Afterwards, their organs were prepared for detection of Leishmania and Crithidia species by molecular, microscopic, and culture methods. Results: Totally, 115 rodents of five species; Tatera indica (T. indica) (85), Rattus rattus (12), Meriones libycus (9), Mus musculus (7), and Rattus norvegicus (2), were trapped alive and their tissue samples were examined using microscopic, cultivation, and molecular assays. Overall, 59 (51.3%) rodents were positive for Leishmania or Crithidia parasites. The highest rate (61.2%; 52/85) of Leishmania infection was related to the T. indica population. The cultivation, and molecular observations showed that two (2.4%; 2/85) of T. indica (foot-pad, and spleen samples) were positive to Crithidia. Conclusions: This is the first report of Crithidia infection in T. indica in Iran. Consequently, more epidemiological and ecological studies are needed to understand the role of Crithidia and Leishmania in T. indica

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Moshfe A, Arefkhah N, Sarkari B, Kazemi S, Mardani A. Toxoplasma gondii in Blood Donors: A Study in Boyer-Ahmad County, Southwest Iran. Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases. 2018;2018.

Toxoplasma gondii is an important foodborne protozoan that can be transmitted through infected blood containing tachyzoite form of the parasite. The current study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of T. gondii infection and related risk factors among healthy blood donors in Boyer-Ahmad County, southwest Iran. Blood samples were taken from 285 healthy blood donors who voluntarily agreed to participate in this study. Sera and buffy coat were isolated from the blood samples for serological and molecular evaluations. The sera were tested for anti-T. gondii antibodies (both IgG and IgM), using a commercial ELISA kit. The buffy coat of seropositive cases was evaluated for detection of T. gondii DNA by PCR. Moreover, a structured questionnaire, containing socioepidemiological data and possible risk factors, was filled out by each participant during sample collection. Anti-T. gondii antibodies were detected in sera of 48/285 (16.8%) participants. Only two of the subjects (0.7%) were seropositive for both IgG and IgM antibodies. T. gondii DNA was not detected in buffy coat of any of the seropositive cases. Risk factors such as contact with soil (OR, 9.7; 95% CI, 4.9-19.4) and consumption of semicooked meat (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.2-5.03) were statistically associated with seropositivity to T. gondii. The seroprevalence rate of T. gondii antibodies in the blood donors of Boyer-Ahmad County was not high in comparison with other regions in Iran. In this study, consumption of undercooked meats, job, and contact with soil were independent risk factors associated with T. gondii infection, which can be considered as potential sources of T. gondii infection.

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Rezaei Z, Sarkari B, Dehghani M, Layegh Gigloo A, Afrashteh M. High frequency of subclinical Leishmania infection among HIV-infected patients living in the endemic areas of visceral leishmaniasis in Fars province, southern Iran. Parasitology Research. 2018;117(8):2591-5.

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a major health concern in patients with HIV infection in endemic areas of VL. In these areas, a substantial number of infected individuals are asymptomatic and the risk of acute VL infection in HIV/VL co-infected cases is high. The current study aimed to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic VL infection among HIV-infected patients in Fars province, southern Iran. Subjects of the study were 251 HIV-confirmed patients who all were clinically asymptomatic for leishmaniasis. Blood samples were obtained from each participant. Anti-Leishmania antibodies were detected in the sera using ELISA. DNA was extracted from the buffy coat of each subject and PCR amplified, targeting an ITS-2 gene of Leishmania. PCR products were purified from the gel and were sequenced. Overall, 19 out of 251 (7.6%) HIV-infected patients were found to be infected with Leishmania, using serological or molecular methods. Anti-Leishmania antibodies were detected in 13 (5.2%) patients and leishmanial DNA in 8 (3.2%) of the patients. The sequence analysis of DNA-positive cases revealed the species of the parasite as L. infantum. The high prevalence of VL among the patients with HIV is a serious challenge which demands further attention to improve the prophylaxis and treatment measurements of VL/HIV co-infection and thereby promoting the life expectancy and quality of life of these patients

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Subject: " Musculoskeletal System "

 

Jahromi MG, Parsaei H, Zamani A, Stashuk DW. Cross Comparison of Motor Unit Potential Features used in EMG Signal Decomposition. IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering. 2018;26(5):1017-25.

Feature extraction is an important step of resolving an electromyographic (EMG) signal into its component motor unit potential trains (MUPTs), commonly known as EMG decomposition. Until now, different features have been used to represent motor unit potentials (MUPs) and improve decomposition processing time and accuracy, but a major limitation is that no systematic comparison of features exists. In an EMG decomposition system, like any pattern recognition system, the features used for representing MUPs play an important role in the overall performance of the system. A cross comparison of the feature extraction methods used in EMG signal decomposition can assist in choosing the best features for representing MUPs and ultimately may improve EMG decomposition results. This paper presents a survey and cross comparison of these feature extraction methods. Decomposability Index (DI), classification accuracy of a kNN classifier, and class-feature mutual information were employed for evaluating the discriminative power of various feature extraction techniques commonly used in the literature including time domain, morphological, frequency domain, and discrete wavelets. In terms of data, 45 simulated and 82 real EMG signals were used. Results showed that among time domain features, the first derivative of time samples exhibit the best separability. For morphological features, slope analysis provided the most discriminative power. Discrete Fourier transform coefficients offered the best separability among frequency domain features. However, neither morphological nor frequency domain techniques outperformed time domain features. The detail4 coefficients in a discrete wavelets decomposition exceeded in evaluation measures when compared to other feature extraction techniques. Using principal component analysis slightly improved the results, but it is time consuming. Overall, considering computation time and discriminative ability, the first derivative of time samples might be efficient in representing MUPs in EMG decomposition and there is no need for sophisticated feature extraction methods.

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Ebrahimi S, Kamali F, Razeghi M, Haghpanah SA. Correlation between trunk-pelvis inter-segmental coordination parameters during walking and disability level in chronic low back pain patients. Journal of Biomedical Physics and Engineering. 2018;8(2):193-202

Chronic low back pain (CLBP) disability has been particularly frustrating because its treatment has been a great therapeutic challenge. Disability has been suggested to depend on different factors that should be found and considered in the medical management. The inter-segmental coordination is often impaired in CLBP subjects; however, to the best of our knowledge, there is no evidence about the relationship between the existence of coordination problems and disability in CLBP patients. Objective: To evaluate the correlation between sagittal plane trunk-pelvis intersegmental coordination parameters during walking and disability level in CLBP patients. Methods: Kinematic data were collected from 16 non-specific CLBP (18-40 years) volunteers during walking. Sagittal plane time-normalized segmental angles and velocities were used to calculate continuous relative phase for each data point. Coordination parameters, mean absolute relative phase (MARP) and deviation phase (DP) were derived to quantify the trunk-pelvis coordination pattern and variability during gait cycles, respectively. The disability level was quantified through Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) questionnaire. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to find the probable correlation between coordination parameters and disability level. Results: The analysis demonstrated a significant correlation between sagittal plane MARP or DP and disability level (%ODI) in CLBP subjects during walking (r=-0.806 P<0.001 and r=-0.856, P<0.001, respectively). Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the lower the MARP (more in-phase pattern) and DP (less variable pattern) in the CLBP subjects, the more disability existing in such patients. The results suggest that clinicians should look beyond pain management when prescribing rehabilitation for CLBP and consider interventions that target segmental coordination improvement to manage CLBP induced disability

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Sobhani S, Sinaei E, Motealleh A, Hooshyar F, Kashkooli NS, Yoosefinejad AK. Combined effects of whole body vibration and unstable shoes on balance measures in older adults: A randomized clinical trial. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics. 2018;78:30-7.

The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of 4 weeks of whole body vibration training on balance in older adults who word two different types of shoes: unstable (unstable group) versus standard shoes (stable group). Design: Randomized, single-blind clinical trial. Participants: Seventy eight eligible older adults were initially enrolled; 59 participants (mean age 69.7±5.3 years) completed the program. Intervention: Participants were randomized 1:1 to an intervention group that received whole body vibration with unstable shoes, and a control group that received whole body vibration with standard shoes. Outcome measures: The Fullerton Advanced Balance scale, preferred gait speed, maximum gait speed, and Fall Efficacy Scale were recorded at baseline, after the 4-week intervention, and 1 month after the end of the training program. Results: Both groups showed improvement in all outcome measures at 4 weeks (p < 0.01) with no significant between-group differences. In the unstable group, the gains were maintained at follow-up (p < 0.01) whereas the scores returned to baseline values in the stable group. At follow-up, significant between-group differences were found for Fullerton Advanced Balance scale (p < 0.001), preferred gait speed (p = 0.007) and maximum gait speed (p = 0.007), and all were in favor of the unstable group. Conclusion: Combining whole body vibration with unstable shoes can be proposed as a beneficial method with relatively long-term effects to improve balance measures in older people.

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Subject: " Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology "

 

 

 

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Subject: " Pediatrics "

 

 

 

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Subject: " Pulmonary and Immune System "

 

 

 

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Subject: " Surgery "

 

Mohammadi AA, Foroutan A, Mohammadi S, Zardosht M. Evaluation of Patients' Satisfaction and Functional Outcome of Dorsal Hand Unit Reconstruction in Burn Patients in Shiraz, Southern Iran. Journal of Burn Care and Research. 2018;39(4):572-9.

The aim of this study was to assess patients' satisfaction and functional outcome of dorsal hand unit reconstruction in burn patients in Shiraz, southern Iran. From September 2013 to February 2017, 11 patients (15 hands) with hand aesthetic complaint who were unhappy with their hand appearance were included for dorsal hand unit reconstruction. Under general anesthesia and tourniquet control, the burned tissue on dorsal surface of the hands was excised and a thick partial thickness skin graft was used for coverage, whereas the fingers were fixed by sutures to the palm. After 1 year, the five-points scale was used for evaluation of patients' satisfaction regarding the five major activities considered for hand function before and after operation. The mean age of the patients was 25.8 ± 5.17 years. The skin grafts were well taken. Six (40%) and eight patients (53%) reported the result of operation as completely satisfied and satisfied, respectively. Dorsal hand unit reconstruction in patients with dorsal hand contracture and significant dorsal scar was shown to simultaneously improve the function and aesthetic outcome of the surgery.

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  نشانی ما:   research.sums.ac.ir
معاونت پژوهشی و فناوری دانشگاه علوم پزشكی شيراز
شيراز- خيابان زند- ساختمان مركزی دانشگاه علوم
پزشكی شيراز- طبقه هفتم - معاونت پژوهشی و فناوری
تلفن: 32357282 ،  دورنگار: 32122430
پست الکترونیک: vcrdep@sums.ac.ir


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