خبرنامه علمی معاونت پژوهشی و فناوری دانشگاه علوم پزشکی شیراز
  Winter 2018 / Vol.3 Number 1

Subject: " Basic Science "

 

Derakhshan Z, Mahvi AH, Ghaneian MT, Mazloomi SM, Faramarzian M, Dehghani M, Fallahzadeh H, Yousefinejad S, Berizi E, Ehrampoush MH, Bahrami S. Simultaneous removal of atrazine and organic matter from wastewater using anaerobic moving bed biofilm reactor: A performance analysis. Journal of Environmental Management. 2018;209:515-24.

In this study, an anaerobic moving bed biofilm reactor (AMBBR) was designed to biodegrade atrazine under mesophilic (32 °C) condition and then it was evaluated for approximately 1 year. After biofilm formation, acclimation, and enrichment of microbial population within the bioreactor, the effect of various operation conditions such as changes in the concentration of influent atrazine and sucrose, hydraulic retention time (HRT), and salinity on the removal of atrazine and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were studied. In optimum conditions, the maximum removal efficiency of atrazine and COD was 60.5% and 97.4%, respectively. Various models were developed to predict the performance of atrazine removal as a function of HRT during continuous digestion. Also, coefficients kinetics was studied and the maximum atrazine removal rate was determined by Stover - Kincannon model (rmax = 0.223 kgATZ/m3d). Increasing salinity up to 20 g/L NaCl in influent flow could inhibit atrazine biodegradation process strongly in the AMBBR reactor; whereas, the reactor could tolerate the concentrations less than 20 g/L easily. Results showed that AMBBR is feasible, easy, affordable, so suitable process for efficiently biodegrading toxic chlorinated organic compounds such as atrazine. There was no accumulation of atrazine in the biofilm and the loss of atrazine in the control reactor was negligible; this shows that atrazine removal mechanism in this system was due to co-metabolism.

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Azhdarpoor A, Abbasi L, Samaei MR. Investigation of a new double-stage aerobic-anoxic continuous-flow cyclic baffled bioreactor efficiency for wastewater nutrient removal. Journal of Environmental Management. 2018;211:1-8.

Nitrogen and phosphorus are among the potential pollutants of receptive water sources entering into these water sources via sewage, which are not sufficiently treated. The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficiency of a new two-stage aerobic-anoxic continuous-flow baffled cycling reactor (CFBCR) to reduce nitrogen and phosphorus load from wastewater. Therefore, a double-stage baffled reactor was used in which the second part was integrated with the settling part causing the sludge to be spontaneously returned to the second reservoir. Additionally, the effect of different concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 400–800 mg/L, ammonia of 40–60 mg/L, phosphate of 12–20 mg/L, internal rate of return of 100–200% and the retention time of 18–30 h was investigated. Furthermore, to investigate the performance of this reactor, four phases with different aeration and mixing conditions were designed. The percentage of ammonia removal with influent concentration of 40 mg/L in phase 2 with intermittent mixing and one-hour aeration time was 98.7%; effluent nitrate average concentration was 8.4 mg/L NO3-N, and phosphate removal percent was 83%. The best nutrient removal efficiency was with the retention time of 24 h and internal return rate of 150%. In conclusion, CFBCR reactor with continuous influent and effluent and reduction of the need for sludge return, has the potential to be applied to remove nutrients from wastewater.

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Derakhshan Z, Mahvi AH, Ehrampoush MH, Ghaneian MT, Yousefinejad S, Faramarzian M, et al. Evaluation of kenaf fibers as moving bed biofilm carriers in algal membrane photobioreactor. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 2018;152:1-7.

In this lab-scale study, the feasibility of using kenaf fibers as moving bed biofilm carriers in hybrid microalgal membrane photobioreactors (HMPBR) in organic matter and atrazine elimination from real secondary effluent was evaluated. For evaluating the kinetics of biofilm substrate consumption, an experimental model was proposed. Inoculation of wastewater samples with free carriers resulted in the greater removal of target pollutants. Removal efficiency of atrazine and chemical oxygen demand (COD) increased to 27% and 16%, with respect to the control, respectively. The total biomass accumulation in HMPBR exceeded 5 g/L, and the microalgae tended to aggregate and attached to biofilm carriers. The removal efficiency of HMPBR improved significantly via inoculation of kenaf fiber carriers with bioremediation microalgal strains (p < 0.01). A lower stabilization ratio (VSS/TSS) was also recorded. The biomass in HMPBR included more lipids and carbohydrates. The results revealed that kenaf fibers could improve and upgrade the biological activity of different wastewater treatment applications, considering the great potential of biofilm carriers and their effluent quality.

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Jamalimoghadam N, Yektatalab S, Momennasab M, Ebadi A, Zare N. Hospitalized adolescents’ perception of dignity: A qualitative study. Nursing Ethics. 2017.

Background: Adolescents can be vulnerable to diminished dignity in the hospital because young people have significantly different healthcare needs than children and adults. They like to cooperate with caregivers only when they get respectful and dignified care. Care without considering dignity can adversely influence the adolescents’ recovery. However, many studies have been conducted on exploring the concept of the patients’ dignity from the adult patients and fewer studies still have explored the dignity of young people. Objective: This study explores the hospitalized adolescents’ perception about dignity. Research design: A conventional qualitative content analysis method was used to explore the meaning of hospitalized adolescents’ dignity. Participants and research context: Hospitalized adolescents in general medical and surgical pediatric units were eligible to participate. Data were obtained through unstructured interviews. Purposive sampling was used and adolescents were recruited until data saturation was reached (n = 13). Ethical considerations: Ethical approval for the study was granted by the Ethics Committee of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Participants were provided with information about the purpose, reasons for recording interviews, voluntary participation, and confidentiality of data and interviewees. Findings: Dignity was reflected in four themes: (1) protection of personal privacy, (2) protection of autonomy, (3) respect for identity, and (4) intimate communication. Discussion and conclusion: Hospitalized adolescents stated that healthcare services should protect their personal privacy and autonomy. Also, they should respect the adolescent’s identity and communicate intimately with them to provide the dignity. Adolescence is a discrete developmental stage, with specific healthcare needs which must be addressed effectively by healthcare providers especially nurses.

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Okhovat MA, Ziari K, Ranjbaran R, Nikouyan N. The effect of histone deacetylase inhibitors on AHSP expression. PLoS ONE. 2018;13(2).

Alpha-hemoglobin stabilizing protein (AHSP) is a molecular chaperone that can reduce the damage caused by excess free α-globin to erythroid cells in patients with impaired β-globin chain synthesis. We assessed the effect of sodium phenylbutyrate and sodium valproate, two histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs) that are being studied for the treatment of hemoglobinopathies, on the expression of AHSP, BCL11A (all isoforms), γ-globin genes (HBG1/ 2), and some related transcription factors including GATA1, NFE2, EKLF, KLF4, and STAT3. For this purpose, the K562 cell line was cultured for 2, 4, and 6 days in the presence and absence of sodium phenylbutyrate and sodium valproate. Relative real-time qRT-PCR analysis of mRNA levels was performed to determine the effects of the two compounds on gene expression. Expression of all target mRNAs increased significantly (p < 0.05), except for the expression of BCL11A, which was down-regulated (p < 0.05) in the cells treated with both compounds relative to the levels measured for untreated cells. The findings indicated that sodium valproate had a more considerable effect than sodium phenylbutyrate (p < 0.0005) on BCL11A repression and the up-regulation of other studied genes. γ-Globin and AHSP gene expression continuously increased during the culture period in the treated cells, with the highest gene expression observed for 1 mM sodium valproate after 6 days. Both compounds repressed the expression of BCL11A (-XL, -L, -S) and up-regulated GATA1, NFE2, EKLF, KLF4, STAT3, AHSP, and γ-globin genes expression. Moreover, sodium valproate showed a stronger effect on repressing BCL11A and escalating the expression of other target genes. The findings of this in vitro experiment could be considered in selecting drugs for clinical use in patients with β-hemoglobinopathies. © 2018 Okhovat et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Sattarahmady N, Firoozabadi V, Nazari-Vanani R, Azarpira N. Investigation of amyloid formation inhibition of chemically and biogenically from Citrus aurantium L. blossoms and Rose damascena oils of gold nanoparticles: Toxicity evaluation in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 2018;112:703-11.

Fibrillation inhibition effects of chemically and biogenically gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were investigated in vitro using human insulin as a model for fibrillation of protein. This inspection was followed using the Congo red assay, thioflavin T fluorescence measurements, transmission electron microscopy, and evaluation of cytotoxicity effects on rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. Biogenic GNPs were synthesized using oil extracts of Citrus aurantium L. blossoms and Rose damascena blossoms as reducing and concomitant agents. Congo red assay showed development of fibril formation of insulin at acidic media at 60 °C over a period of 48 h. In these circumstances, transmission electron micrographs confirmed the progress of fibril state from globular chains to amyloid. However, the results of ThT fluorescence measurements indicated a concentration-dependent inhibiting effect of chemically synthesized GNPs on insulin fibrillation in vitro, simultaneously by conversion of the formed fibrils into amorphous aggregates. Furthermore, biogenic GNPs were found to more effectively inhibit the fibril formation, compared to chemically synthesized GNPs. Accordingly, just 0.05 nmol L−1 of the biogenic GNPs showed similar inhibition property of chemically synthesized GNPs with a concentration of 10 nmol L−1. Both types of GNPs diminished toxicity of insulin fibrils in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells viability.

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Seifan M, Sarmah AK, Ebrahiminezhad A, Ghasemi Y, Samani AK, Berenjian A. Bio-reinforced self-healing concrete using magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 2018;102(5):2167-78.

Immobilization has been reported as an efficient technique to address the bacterial vulnerability for application in bio self-healing concrete. In this study, for the first time, magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONs) are being practically employed as the protective vehicle for bacteria to evaluate the self-healing performance in concrete environment. Magnetic IONs were successfully synthesized and characterized using different techniques. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) images show the efficient adsorption of nanoparticles to the Bacillus cells. Microscopic observation illustrates that the incorporation of the immobilized bacteria in the concrete matrix resulted in a significant crack healing behavior, while the control specimen had no healing characteristics. Analysis of bio-precipitates revealed that the induced minerals in the cracks were calcium carbonate. The effect of magnetic immobilized cells on the concrete water absorption showed that the concrete specimens supplemented with decorated bacteria with IONs had a higher resistance to water penetration. The initial and secondary water absorption rates in bio-concrete specimens were 26% and 22% lower than the control specimens. Due to the compatible behavior of IONs with the concrete compositions, the results of this study proved the potential application of IONs for developing a new generation of bio self-healing concrete.

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Tondro GH, Dehdari Vais R, Sattarahmady N. An optical genosensor for Enterococcus faecalis using conjugated gold nanoparticles-rRNA oligonucleotide. Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical. 2018;263:36-42.

Recently, enterococci have been introduced as a major nosocomial infection that resist to conventional therapies. A nano-genosensor was designed here by immobilization of a specific oligonucleotide from 16s rRNA gene sequence of Enterococcus faecalis on the surface of gold nanoparticles. It was followed by hybridization assays with synthetic target, genomic target, or PCR products of genomic DNA samples extracted from patients. This genosensor had advantages such as visual detection, short and fast reading of the results and also economical aspects. The genosensor had detection limits of 18.6 and 83.3 pg μL−1 for detection of synthetic target and genomic DNA sequences, respectively (based on spectrophotometic detections). The practical quantitation limits were obtained as 0.31 and 0.34 ng μL−1 for the visual detection of the synthetic target and genomic DNA, respectively.

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Vafadarnejad F, Mahdavi M, Karimpour-Razkenari E, Edraki N, Sameem B, Khanavi M, et al. Design and synthesis of novel coumarin-pyridinium hybrids: In vitro cholinesterase inhibitory activity. Bioorganic Chemistry. 2018;77:311-19.

A novel series of coumarin-pyridinium hybrids were synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) using Ellman's method. Among synthesized compounds, 1-(3-fluorobenzyl)-4-((2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carboxamido)methyl)pyridinium bromide (7l) was found to be the most active compound toward AChE (IC50 = 10.14 µM), 1-(3-chlorobenzyl)-3-((2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carboxamido)methyl)pyridinium bromide (7g) and 1-(2,3-dichlorobenzyl)-3-((2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carboxamido)methyl)pyridinium chloride (7h) depicted the best BChE inhibitory activity (IC50s = 0.32 and 0.43 µM, respectively). Although most compounds showed moderate to good anti-AChE activity, their anti-BChE activity was more significant and compound 7g was found as the most selective BChE with SI of 101.18. Also, kinetic study of the compounds 7g and 7l displayed a mixed type inhibition for both AChE and BChE. Furthermore, they were evaluated against β-secretase; however, they showed low inhibitory activity.

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Zarei N, Fazeli M, Mohammadi M, Nejatollahi F. Cell growth inhibition and apoptosis in breast cancer cells induced by anti-FZD7 scFvs: involvement of bioinformatics-based design of novel epitopes. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment. 2018:1-10.

FZD7 has a critical role as a surface receptor of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in cancer cells. Suppressing Wnt signaling through blocking FZD7 is shown to decrease cell viability, metastasis and invasion. Bioinformatic methods have been a powerful tool in epitope designing studies. Small size, high affinity and human origin of scFv antibodies have provided unique advantages for these recombinant antibodies. Methods: Two epitopes from extracellular domain of FZD7 were designed using bioinformatic methods. Specific anti-FZD7 scFvs were selected against these epitopes through panning process. The specificity of the scFvs was assessed by phage ELISA and the ability to bind to FZD7 expressing cell line (MDA-MB-231) was determined by flowcytometry. Antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of the scFvs were evaluated by MTT and Annexin V/PI assays. The effects of selected scFvs on expression level of Surivin, c-Myc and Dvl genes were also evaluated by real-time PCR. Results: Results demonstrated selection of two specific scFvs (scFv-I and scFv-II) with frequencies of 35 and 20%. Both antibodies bound to the corresponding peptides and cell surface receptors as shown by phage ELISA and flowcytometry, respectively. The scFvs inhibited cell growth of MDA-MB-231 cells significantly as compared to untreated cells. Growth inhibition of 58.6 and 53.1% were detected for scFv-I and scFv-II, respectively. No significant growth inhibition was detected for SKBR-3 negative control cells. The scFvs induced apoptotic effects in the MDA-MB-231 treated cells after 48 h, which were 81.6 and 74.9% for scFv-I and scFv-II, respectively. Downregulation of Surivin, c-Myc and Dvl genes were also shown after 48h treatment of cells with either of scFvs (59.3–93.8%). ScFv-I showed significant higher antiproliferative and apoptotic effects than scFv-II. Conclusions: Bioinformatic methods could effectively select potential epitopes of FZD7 protein and suggest that epitope designing by bioinformatic methods could contribute to the selection of key antigens for cancer immunotherapy. The selected scFvs, especially scFv-I, with high antiproliferative and apoptotic effects could be considered as effective agents for immunotherapy of cancers expressing FZD7 receptor including triple negative breast cancer.

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Dehghani M, Fazlzadeh M, Sorooshian A, Tabatabaee HR, Miri M, Baghani AN, et al. Characteristics and health effects of BTEX in a hot spot for urban pollution. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 2018;155:133-43.

This study reports a spatiotemporal characterization of toluene, benzene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes concentrations (BTEX) in an urban hot spot in Iran, specifically at an bus terminal region in Shiraz. Sampling was carried out according to NIOSH Compendium Method 1501. The inverse distance weighting (IDW) method was applied for spatial mapping. The Monte Carlo simulation technique was applied to evaluate carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk owing to BTEX exposure. The highest average BTEX concentrations were observed for benzene in the morning (at 7:00–9:00 A.M. local time) (26.15 ± 17.65 µg/m3) and evening (at 6:00–8:00 P.M. local time) (34.44 ± 15.63 µg/m3). The benzene to toluene ratios in the morning and evening were 2.02 and 3.07, respectively. The main sources of BTEX were gas stations and a municipal solid waste transfer station. The inhalation lifetime cancer risk (LTCR) for benzene in the morning and evening were 1.96 × 10−4 and 2.49 × 10−4, respectively, which exceeds the recommended value by US EPA and WHO. The hazard quotient (HQ) of all these pollutants was less than 1. The results of this work have implications for public health near ‘hot spots’ such as IKBT where large populations are exposed to carcinogenic emissions.

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Derakhshan Z, Ehrampoush MH, Mahvi AH, Ghaneian MT, Mazloomi SM, Faramarzian M, et al. Biodegradation of atrazine from wastewater using moving bed biofilm reactor under nitrate-reducing conditions: A kinetic study. Journal of Environmental Management. 2018;212:506-13.

In this study employed an anoxic moving bed biofilm reactor (AnMBBR) to evaluate the effects of hydraulic and toxic shocks on performance reactor. The results indicated a relatively good resistance of system against exercised shocks and its ability to return to steady-state conditions. In optimal conditions when there was the maximum rate of atrazine and soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal were 74.82% and 99.29% respectively. Also, atrazine biodegradation rapidly declines in AnMBBR from 74% ± 0.05 in the presence of nitrate to 9.12% only 3 days after the nitrate was eliding from the influent. Coefficients kinetics was studied and the maximum atrazine removal rate was determined by modified Stover & Kincannon model (Umax = 9.87 gATZ/m3d). Results showed that AnMBBR is feasible, easy, affordable, so suitable process for efficiently biodegrading toxic chlorinated organic compounds such as atrazine. Also, its removal mechanism in this system is co-metabolism.

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Farjadian F, Moghoofei M, Mirkiani S, Ghasemi A, Rabiee N, Hadifar S, et al. Bacterial components as naturally inspired nano-carriers for drug/gene delivery and immunization: Set the bugs to work? Biotechnology Advances. 2018.

Drug delivery is a rapidly growing area of research motivated by the nanotechnology revolution, the ideal of personalized medicine, and the desire to reduce the side effects of toxic anti-cancer drugs. Amongst a bewildering array of different nanostructures and nanocarriers, those examples that are fundamentally bio-inspired and derived from natural sources are particularly preferred. Delivery of vaccines is also an active area of research in this field. Bacterial cells and their components that have been used for drug delivery, include the crystalline cell-surface layer known as "S-layer", bacterial ghosts, bacterial outer membrane vesicles, and bacterial products or derivatives (e.g. spores, polymers, and magnetic nanoparticles). Considering the origin of these components from potentially pathogenic microorganisms, it is not surprising that they have been applied for vaccines and immunization. The present review critically summarizes their applications focusing on their advantages for delivery of drugs, genes, and vaccines.

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Golestan A, Ghaderi A, Mojtahedi Z. Effects of NDRG2 overexpression on metastatic behaviors of HCT116 colorectal cancer cell line. Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 2017;7(4):661-4.

N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) is frequently down-regulated in cancer, and plays an important role in the control of tumor growth and metastasis. Its manipulation has been suggested as a therapy in cancer. Here, we examined the outcome of NDRG2 overexpression on proliferation, invasion, migration and MMP activity of HCT116 colorectal cancer cell line. Methods: The HCT116 cell line (human colorectal cancer) was transfected with pCMV6-AC-GFP-NDRG2. 2,5diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to detect cell proliferation. The invasion and migration of the transfected cells were examined through transwell chambers while the MMP-9 activity was detected by the ability of the cells to digest gelatin. Results: Overexpression of NDRG2 by stable NDRG2 transfection decreased cell proliferation, migration and invasion ability, along with decreasing MMP-9 activity. Conclusion: Our data indicate that NDRG2 overexpression can suppress several aspect of tumorigenesis. Further investigations are necessitated to verify if NDRG2 molecule can be a therapeutic target in colorectal cancer.

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Hayati R, Bastani P, Kabir MJ, Kavosi Z, Sobhani G. Scoping literature review on the basic health benefit package and its determinant criteria. Globalization and Health. 2018;14(1).

There are various criteria and methods to develop Basic Health Benefit Package (BHBP) in world health systems. The present study aimed to extract criteria used in health systems in different countries around the world using scoping review method. Methods: A systematic search was carried out in Cochrane Library, PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, Web of Science, ProQuest, World Bank, World Health Organization, and Google databases between January and April 2016. Papers and reports were gathered according to selected keywords and were examined by two authors. Finally, the criteria were extracted from the selected papers. Results: The primary search included 8876 papers. After studying the articles' titles, abstracts, and full texts, 9 articles and 14 reports were selected for final analysis. After the final analysis, 19 criteria were extracted. Due to diversity of criteria in terms of number and nature, they were divided into three categories. The categories included intervention-related criteria, disease-related criteria, and community-related criteria. The largest number of criteria belonged to the first category. Indeed, the most widely applied criteria included cost-effectiveness (20), effectiveness (19), budget impact (12), equity (12), and burden of disease (10). Conclusion: According to the results, different criteria were identified in terms of number and nature in developing BHBP in world health systems. It seems that certain criteria, such as cost-effectiveness, effectiveness, budget impact, burden of disease, equity, and necessity, that were most widely utilized in countries under study could be for designing BHBP with regard to social, cultural, and economic considerations.

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Keshtkar S, Azarpira N, Ghahremani MH. Mesenchymal stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles: Novel frontiers in regenerative medicine. Stem Cell Research and Therapy. 2018;9(1).

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stem cells that have gained significant attention in the field of regenerative medicine. The differentiation potential along with paracrine properties of MSCs have made them a key option for tissue repair. The paracrine functions of MSCs are applied through secreting soluble factors and releasing extracellular vesicles like exosomes and microvesicles. Extracellular vesicles are predominantly endosomal in origin and contain a cargo of miRNA, mRNA, and proteins that are transferred from their original cells to target cells. Recently it has emerged that extracellular vesicles alone are responsible for the therapeutic effect of MSCs in plenty of animal diseases models. Hence, MSC-derived extracellular vesicles may be used as an alternative MSC-based therapy in regenerative medicine. In this review we discuss MSC-derived extracellular vesicles and their therapeutic potential in various diseases.

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Subject: " Brain and Neurons "

 

Iraji A, Firuzi O, Khoshneviszadeh M, Nadri H, Edraki N, Miri R. Synthesis and structure-activity relationship study of multi-target triazine derivatives as innovative candidates for treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Bioorganic Chemistry. 2018;77:223-35.

The complex pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) requires using multi-target ligands (MTLs) for disease management. We synthesized, characterized and evaluated a series of novel triazine analogues as MTLs for AD. The biological screening results indicated that most of our compounds displayed potent inhibitory activities against β-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) using a FRET-based assay. Compounds 6c and 6m were found to possess significant BACE1 inhibitory properties with IC50 values of 0.91 (±0.25) µM and 0.69 (±0.20) µM, respectively. DPPH radical scavenging activity evaluation showed that compounds with hydroxyl and pyrrole moieties had antioxidant effects. Docking evaluations provided insight into enzyme inhibitory interactions of novel synthesized compounds with the BACE1 active site involving a critical role for Gln73 and/or Phe108 alongside of Asp32. Metal chelation tests confirmed that compound 6m is a chelator for Fe2+, Fe3+, Zn2+, Cu2+. Moreover 6m as the most potent BACE1 inhibitor did not show any toxicity against PC12 neuronal cells. These findings demonstrate the high potential of triazine scaffolds in the design of MTLs for treatment of AD.

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Jalilian H, Teshnizi SH, Röösli M, Neghab M. Occupational exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields and risk of Alzheimer disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Neuro Toxicology. 2018.

Occupational exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) occurs in many occupations such as welders, electric utility workers, train drivers and sewing machine operators. There is some evidence suggesting ELF-MF exposure to be a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). The current study aims at systematically reviewing the literature and conducting a meta-analysis to evaluate the risk of AD amongst workers exposed to ELF-MF. Methods: Bibliographic databases were searched including PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science in November 2017. Risk of bias was assessed in the all included studies. Pooled estimates were obtained using random-effects meta-analysis. In addition, sources of heterogeneity between studies and publication bias were explored. Results: In total, 20 articles met the inclusion criteria. The pooled results suggest an increased risk of AD (RR: 1.63; 95% CI: 1.35, 1.96). Higher risk estimates were obtained from case-control studies (OR: 1.80; 95% CI: 1.40, 2.32) than from cohort studies (RR: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.87). A moderate to high heterogeneity (I2 = 61.0%) and indication for publication bias (Egger test: p < 0.001) were found. Conclusion: The results suggested that occupational exposure to ELF-MF might increase the risk of AD. However, this suggestion should be interpreted with caution given the moderate to high heterogeneity and indication for publication bias.

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Firouzabadi N, Nazariat A, Zomorrodian K. DRD3 Ser9Gly polymorphism and its influence on risperidone response in autistic children. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2017;20:445-52.

PURPOSE: Autism, a neuropsychiatric illness, is a complex ailment of mainly indefinite cause. Although precise pathophysiological mechanism is unclear but the role of genetics is undeniable therefore pharmacogenetics may assist to a better management of symptoms. Risperidone is widely used in autism. Considering the significance of dopaminergic system in psychological and neurological diseases and its association with autism, the hypothesis that genetic variant of dopamine receptor (DRD3), Ser9Gly (rs6280), may influence treatment of autism may be assumed. METHOD: In the present study, 56 autistic Persian children within the age range of 2.5 to 14 years were included. Diagnosis of autism was based on DSM-V criteria and the severity degree was measured by ABC-C checklists at base line and after 8 weeks of treatment with risperidone. Based on their scores patients were categorized as responsive and non-responsive groups. DRD3 Ser9Gly (rs6280) was determined by PCR-RFLP. RESULTS: Carriers of Gly allele as well as carriers of Gly/Gly and Ser/Gly genotypes showed significantly better response to risperidone compared with carriers of Ser allele and Ser/Ser genotype (P=0.027; OR= 4.18; 95%CI=1.16-15.03 and P=0.014; OR=6.825; 95%CI=1.36-34.13). CONCLUSION: Our results advocate the possible influence of genetic variation of DRD3 in clinical response to antipsychotics like risperidone in autistic individuals.

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Mani A, Chohedri E, Ravanfar P, Mowla A, Nikseresht A. Efficacy of group cognitive rehabilitation therapy in multiple sclerosis. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica. 2018.

Cognitive impairment occurs in 40%-65% of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Several techniques for cognitive rehabilitation (CR) in these patients have been evaluated; however, the results have been controversial. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of group compensatory CR in patients with MS-related cognitive impairment. Materials and methods: Thirty-four female patients with diagnosed relapsing-remitting MS and evidence of impaired cognitive function were included and randomized to intervention (n = 17) and control (n = 17) groups. CR intervention consisted of eight 2-hour sessions of comprehensive group CR over a 4-week period that focused on improvement of memory, attention, and executive function. As placebo, the control group received the same number of non-therapeutic group sessions. Assessment of cognitive function was performed before intervention (pretest), at the end of intervention (post-test), and 3 months later (follow-up). Results: The study population included 34 patients with a mean age of 35.5 years. Statistical comparison of memory assessments at 3-month follow-up showed significantly higher scores in the CR group than in the control group (93.33 vs 86.40 for Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination test and 16.58 vs 12.00 for visual memory, 19.32 vs 14.05 for verbal memory, and 51.28 vs 44.41 for general scores on the Memory Functioning Questionnaire test, respectively). Wisconsin card sorting test score comparison showed significantly lower total time consumption in the CR group than in the control group (308.1 vs 340.8 seconds, respectively). Behavior rating inventory of executive function-adult scores in all four subtests were significantly higher in the CR group than in the control group (40.25 vs 55.4 for behavioral regulation index, 51.16 vs 68.6 for metacognition index, and 97.41 vs 124.00 for global executive composite, respectively). Attention was the only domain in which we did not observe any significant variation between groups in terms of post-test and follow-up scores. Conclusion: This study supports the efficacy of group CR in the improvement of cognitive function in patients with MS.

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Asadi-Pooya AA, Kanemoto K, Kwon OY, Taniguchi G, Dong Z, Chinvarun Y, et al. Depression in people with epilepsy: How much do Asian colleagues acknowledge it? Seizure. 2018;57:45-9.

The purpose of this review was to investigate the prevalence of depression in people with epilepsy (PWE) in different countries in Asia. Methods: We searched the electronic database PubMed on June 13, 2017 for articles in English that included the following search terms: “epilepsy” AND “depression” AND “country name” for all Asian countries since 1947. Relevant original studies from Asia were included if they reported the prevalence of depression in PWE. Papers studying special populations (e.g., elderly, veterans, etc.) were not included. In addition, experts in epilepsy field were invited from some Asian countries for an in-depth assessment. Results: Six hundred eighty-seven papers were reviewed and 26 related studies were included in this study. Depression is highly prevalent in PWE in different countries in Asia and the prevalence rates are consistent with rates reported in the literature from other countries: overall, about 25% of PWE suffer from depression. Conclusion: In Asian countries, as elsewhere, depression is common in PWE. High quality data is scarce in many countries and validated screening tools [e.g., Neurological Disorders Depression Inventory for Epilepsy (NDDI-E)] to appropriately investigate the prevalence of depression in PWE are still lacking in many languages. Considering the high prevalence of depression among PWE, routine and periodic screening of all PWE for early detection and appropriate management of depression would be a reasonable approach.

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Keshavarz M, Farrokhi MR, Amiri A. Caffeine neuroprotective mechanism against β-amyloid neurotoxicity in SHSY5Y cell line: Involvement of adenosine, ryanodine, and Nmethyl- D-aspartate receptors. Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 2017;7(4):579-84.

Some reports have shown neuroprotective effects of caffeine in several neurodegenerative disorders. However, its mechanism of action is not completely clear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the interference of ryanodine, N-methyl-Daspartate (NMDA) and adenosine modulators with the neuroprotective effects of caffeine against β-amyloid (Aβ) neurotoxicity in the SHSY5Y cells. Methods: The SHSY5Y cells were treated with Aβ23-35 (20μM) and/or caffeine (0.6 and 1mM), or both for 24 hours. Adenosine (20, 40, 60, 80, 100μM), NMDA (20, 50, 70, 90μM), dantrolene (2, 4, 6, 8, 10μM) were also added to the medium and incubated for 24 hours. The cell viability was measured via the MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5- diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) method. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni test. Results: Caffeine at all the used concentrations (0.6, 0.8, 0.9, 1, and 3mM) significantly protected neuronal cells against Aβ neurotoxicity. Adenosine at the concentrations of 20, 40, 80 and 100μM diminished the neuroprotective effects of caffeine (0.6 and 1mM) against Aβ neurotoxicity. NMDA at the concentrations of 20, 50, 70 and 90μM blocked caffeine (0.6 and 1mM) neuroprotective effects. Dantrolene at the concentration of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10μM diminished the neuroprotective effects of caffeine (0.6mM) and at the concentrations of 2 and 10μM impede caffeine (1mM) neuroprotection against Aβ neurotoxicity. Conclusion: Caffeine produced neuroprotective effect against Aβ neurotoxicity. Blockade of adenosine and NMDA receptors, as well as the activation of ryanodine receptors, may contribute to the neuroprotective effects of caffeine.

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Subject: " Dentistry "

 

Memarpour M, Shafiei F, Zarean M, Razmjoei F. Sealing effectiveness of fissure sealant bonded with universal adhesive systems on saliva-contaminated and noncontaminated enamel. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry. 2018;10(1):e1-e6.

The effectiveness of sealants is dependent upon their adhesion to enamel surface. The aim of the study was to evaluate the sealing ability of a pit and fissure sealant used with a universal adhesive (etch-and-rinse vs. self-etch modes) when the site is contaminated with saliva. Adhesive properties were evaluated as microleakage and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) characteristics. Material and Methods: A total of 72 mandibular third molars were randomly divided into 6 groups (n=12). Occlusal pits and fissures were sealed with an unfilled resin fissure sealant (FS) material with or without saliva contamination. The groups included: 1) phosphoric acid etching + FS (control), 2) phosphoric acid etching + Scotchbond Universal (etch-and-rinse) + FS, 3) phosphoric acid etching + saliva + Scotchbond Universal (etch-and-rinse) + FS, 4) Scotchbond Universal (self-etching) + FS,5) Scotchbond Universal (self-etching) + saliva + FS, and 6) Scotchbond Universal (self-etching) + saliva + Scotchbond Universal + FS. After thermocycling, the teeth were placed in 0.5% fuchsin, sectioned, and evaluated by digital microscopy. Two samples from each group were also observed by SEM. The data were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests for a significance of p < 0.05. Results: There were significant differences among groups. Groups 1,2 and 4 showed the least microleakage, with no significant differences among groups. Saliva contamination led to increased microleakage and gap formation in SEM images in groups 3, 5 and 6. Conclusions: The fissure sealing ability of the universal adhesive in etch-and-rinse or self-etch modes was similar to that of conventional acid etching. Saliva contamination had a negative effect on sealant adhesion to pretreated enamel.

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Nabavizadeh, M.R., Sedigh-Shams, M.b, Abdolrasoulnia, S.c. Cyclic fatigue life of two single file engine-driven systems in simulated curved canals. Iranian Endodontic Journal. 2018; 13(1): 61-65.

This study aimed to evaluate the cyclic fatigue resistance of two single file engine-driven instruments, Reciproc and NeoNiTi, in simulated root canals. Methods and Materials: Two groups of 15 NiTi endodontic instruments with an identical tip size of 0.25 mm were tested: Reciproc R25 (group A) and NeoNiTi Al (group B). Cyclic fatigue testing was performed in a stainless steel artificial canal. The simulated canals had a 60 angle and 5- iiim radius curvature. The Reciproc instruments were operated using the preset program on torque control electric motor specific for the Reciproc instruments, while the NeoNiTi instruments were operated using the manufacturer recommendation. All instruments were rotated until fracture occurred, and the number of cycles to fracture (NCF) and the length of the fractured tip were recorded and registered. Means and standard deviations of NCF and fragment length were calculated for each system and data were subjected to Student's t test (P<0.05). Results: A statistically significant difference (P<0.05) was noted between Reciproc and NeoNiTi instruments. NeoNiTi Al instruments were associated with a significantly higher mean NCF as compared to Reciproc R25 instruments (833±176 vs. 318±87 NCF). There was no significant difference (P>0.05) in the mean length of the fractured fragments between the instruments. Conclusion: NeoNiTi instruments were associated with a significantly higher cyclic fatigue resistance than Reciproc instruments.

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Subject: " Education "

 

Moemenbellah-Fard MD, Keshavarzi D, Fereidooni M, Soltani A. First survey of forensically important insects from human corpses in Shiraz, Iran. Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine. 2018;54:62-8.

The presence of insects on human cadavers has potential judicial value in medicolegal cases. This research emphasized the important role of insects in postmortem decomposition. It was conducted to investigate the composition and abundance of insects from human corpses during autopsies in legal medicine. It was implemented in the city of Shiraz, south Iran. Insects associated with human corpses were carefully collected and put into labelled vials. They were then identified using valid taxonomic keys. Fifteen outdoor (67%) and indoor discovered cadavers were examined. All but one was covered at the time of discovery. From these several species of entomofauna played important roles in the minimum postmortem interval (minPMI) estimate. Insects included the orders of Diptera and Coleoptera. Overall, 14 different species of arthropods were identified. Within Diptera, 2 families of Sarcophagidae and Calliphoridae were present in 73% of the cases with Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy and Chrysomya albiceps Wiedemann accounting for about half of the cases. The latter family members, Calliphoridae, were more frequently (52%) collected in autumn and winter. Only 4/15 outdoor cadavers had beetles. Four species of Coleopterans; namely Dermestes frischii Kugelann, Nitidula flavomaculata Rossi, Creophilus maxillosus Linnaeus and Saprinus chalcites Illiger; were recorded for the first time from 3 corpses in Iran. The presence and diversity of different insects on human corpses could contribute to the advancement of forensic entomology knowledge and the refined estimates of minPMI in medicolegal cases.

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Subject: " Endocrinology and Metabolism "

 

Salehi S, Sadeghi F, Akhlaghi M, Hanifpour MA, Roshanzamir M. Vitamin D3-fortified milk did not affect glycemic control, lipid profile, and anthropometric measures in patients with type 2 diabetes, a triple-blind randomized clinical trial. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2018:1-10.

The effect of vitamin D on glycemic status of diabetes patients is controversial. The objective was to assess the effect of vitamin D3-fortified milk on cardiometabolic markers of patients with type 2 diabetes. Subjects/methods: In this randomized triple-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 102 patients (34 males and 68 females) aged 31–74 years with type 2 diabetes were randomized to receive either 250 ml unfortified or 250 ml 1000 IU vitamin D3-fortified milk daily for 9 weeks. Anthropometric characteristics, blood pressure, and serum levels of glucose, insulin, and lipids were determined at baseline and after 9 weeks. Results: Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D concentrations improved in the fortified milk group compared to the control group (+14 ± 20 vs. +4 ± 17 ng/ml; P = 0.001). Both groups showed significant increases in serum calcium (P < 0.01) and decreases in total cholesterol, waist and hip circumference, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (P < 0.001). Also, there was a significant reduction in body mass index of fortified milk group (P < 0.001). None of these changes were statistically significant between the two groups. Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) significantly decreased in both groups with a more remarkable reduction in the plain milk consumers, making a significant between-group difference (7.5% compared to 3.1%; P = 0.01). Conclusions: Overall, daily consumption of one cup of milk containing 1000 IU vitamin D3 for 9 weeks substantially improved vitamin D deficiency in patients with type 2 diabetes but it did not affect cardiometabolic parameters over that of plain milk.

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Ghobadi S, Hassanzadeh-Rostami Z, Salehi-Marzijarani M, Bellissimo N, Brett NR, Totosy de Zepetnek JO, et al. Association of eating while television viewing and overweight/obesity among children and adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Obesity Reviews. 2018;19(3):313-20.

The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine the association between eating while television viewing (TVV) and overweight or obesity in children (<18 years). A systematic search of PubMed, Scopus, Web of science, PreQuest and Embase was conducted up to April 2017; pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using a random effects model. Of 4,357 articles identified, 20 observational studies met inclusion criteria (n = 84,825) and 8 of these 20 (n = 41,617) reported OR. Eating while TVV was positively associated with obesity-related anthropometric measurements in 15 studies (75%). The meta-analysis revealed that eating while TVV was positively associated with being overweight (OR = 1.28; 95% CI: 1.17, 1.39). Subgroup analyses showed similar positive associations in both girls and boys, as well as in children who ate dinner while TVV. There was no evidence of publication bias. The present systematic review and meta-analysis suggests that eating while TVV could be a risk factor for being overweight or obese in childhood and adolescents.

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Saki F, Haghpanah S, Zarei T, Dabbaghmanesh MH, Omrani GR, Bordbar M. Investigating the bone mineral density in children with solid tumors in southern Iran: a case–control study. Archives of Osteoporosis. 2018;13(1).

Along with increasing childhood cancer survival, there is increasing concern about its chronic complications. We showed that 20.5 and 45.9% of children with solid tumors in southern Iran had low bone mass for chronological age in lumbar and femoral area, which was associated with serum ferritin and hemoglobin. 52.4% of these children had vitamin D deficiency, as well. Purpose/introduction: Along with increasing the childhood cancer survival, there is increasing concern about the chronic complications of the disease and the related therapies. This study aims to compare the vitamin D status and bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) of these children with healthy ones and assess some possible associated factors. Method: This case–control study enrolled 50 children with solid tumors and their age- and sex-matched controls. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to assess bone mineral density. Body mass index, puberty, physical activity, sun exposure, and biochemical data were assessed. Results: 52.4% of children with solid tumors had vitamin D deficiency, and there was no significant difference between the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in patients and controls (P = 0.285). The prevalence of low bone mass for chronological age in lumbar area was 20.5 and 12.5% in patients and controls, respectively (P = 0.399). Lumbar spine BMD was associated with hemoglobin level (r = 0.468, P = 0.049), while low bone mass in femoral neck was associated with serum ferritin (859 ± 1037 in low bone mass vs. 178 ± 264 in without low bone mass, P = 0.039). Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency and low bone mass are prevalent among Iranian children with solid tumors. Future studies are warranted to investigate the best strategies to prevent and treat vitamin D deficiency and low bone mass in children surviving cancer.

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Akrami A, Nikaein F, Babajafari S, Faghih S, Yarmohammadi H. Comparison of the effects of flaxseed oil and sunflower seed oil consumption on serum glucose, lipid profile, blood pressure, and lipid peroxidation in patients with metabolic syndrome. Journal of Clinical Lipidology. 2018;12(1):70-7.

Metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) increases the risk of type II diabetes and morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular diseases. Flaxseed oil (FO), as a functional food, is one of the major vegetal sources of essential omega-3 fatty acids. Objective: This study aimed to compare the effects of consumption of FO and sunflower seed oil (SO) on lipid peroxidation and other symptoms of MetSyn. Methods: This randomized controlled interventional trial was conducted on 60 volunteers aged 30 to 60 years who were diagnosed with MetSyn in Shiraz, Iran. The participants who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were randomly assigned to SO (n = 30, receiving 25 mL/d SO) and FO (n = 30, receiving 25 ml/d FO) groups using block randomization. The diets were identical for all the participants. Blood pressure (BP), serum lipid, fasting blood sugar, and malondialdehyde were measured at baseline and at the end of week 7. Result: The results showed no significant difference between the 2 groups regarding blood lipid levels and fasting blood sugar at the end of the study. However, significant reductions in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (5.6% in FO and 10.8% in SO), and triglyceride levels were seen within each group after treatment with FO and SO (P < .05). Nonetheless, between-group changes were significant (<0.05) for systolic BP (mean [±standard deviation {SD}] changes were −14.0 ± 22.41 in the FO group [P = .004] and 0.92 ± 8.70 in the SO group [P = .594]) and diastolic BP (mean [±SD] changes were −4.26 ± 7.44 in the FO group [P = .007] and 1.30 ± 6.91 in the SO group [P = .344]), but marginally significant (P = .053) for malondialdehyde level (mean [±SD] changes were −1.29 ± 1.48 in the FO group [P < .001] and −0.52 ± 1.34 in the SO group [P = .52]). A significant decrease in weight was also found in both groups. However, waist circumference decreased significantly only in the FO group at the end of the study (P < .05). Conclusion: Our results indicated that dietary FO could be effective in amelioration of some symptoms of MetSyn and decrease BP and lipid peroxidation.

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Subject: " Gastrointestinal System "

 

Etemadi A, Gandomkar A, Freedman ND, Moghadami M, Fattahi MR, Poustchi H, Islami F, Boffetta P, Dawsey SM, Abnet CC, Malekzadeh R. The association between waterpipe smoking and gastroesophageal reflux disease. International Journal of Epidemiology. 2017;46(6):1968-77

Unlike cigarettes, there is little information about the association between other tobacco products and the risk of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and esophageal adenocarcinoma. Methods: We used the baseline data from the Pars Cohort Study conducted in southern Iran. In 2012, 9264 local residents between 40 and 75 years old were enrolled, with detailed information about lifestyle, including duration and frequency of tobacco use. GERD was defined based on questions assessing heartburn and regurgitation in the past 12 months, frequency and severity. Associations were calculated by logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, education, cigarettes and body mass index. Results: In the study, 25.4% of the participants had severe GERD (interfering with participants' routines), 25.1% had frequent GERD (at least once a week) and 11.2% had both severe and frequent GERD, all more common among women (p < 0.001); 45.6% of women and 28.3% of men smoked waterpipes. Among people not using medications against reflux symptoms, there was an association between waterpipe smoking and severe [odds ratio (OR) = 1.18; 95% confidence interval (CI):1.04-1.35], frequent (OR=1.16; 95% CI: 1.02-1.32) and severe and frequent reflux (OR=1.30; 95% CI: 1.08-1.56). The associations increased with the duration of use, intensity and cumulative waterpipe-years, reaching an OR of 1.44 (95% CI: 1.12-1.86) for severe and frequent reflux in those who had smoked more than 48 waterpipe-years. There was effect modification by sex, and all the associations were only seen among women. Conclusion: The increasing trend in the association between cumulative waterpipe use and reflux disease among women is particularly important given the growing waterpipe tobacco epidemic in many populations.

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Subject: " Heart and Blood "

 

Ross C, Rangarajan S, Karimi M, Toogeh G, Apte S, Lissitchkov T, Acharya S, Manco-Johnson MJ, Srivastava A, Brand B, Schwartz BA, Knaub S, Peyvandi F. Pharmacokinetics, clot strength and safety of a new fibrinogen concentrate: Randomized comparison with active control in congenital fibrinogen deficiency. Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis. 2018.

Essentials Congenital afibrinogenemia causes a potentially life-threatening bleeding and clotting tendency. Two human fibrinogen concentrates (HFCs) were compared in a randomized pharmacokinetic study. Bioequivalence was not shown for AUCnorm, which was significantly larger for the new HFC. Increases in clot strength were comparable, and no thromboses or deaths occurred in the study. Summary: Background: Human fibrinogen concentrate (HFC) corrects fibrinogen deficiency in congenital a-/hypofibrinogenemia. Objectives: To assess pharmacokinetics (PK), effects on thromboelastometry maximum clot firmness (MCF), and safety of a new double virus-inactivated/eliminated, highly purified HFC vs. active control. Patients/Methods: In this multinational, randomized, phase II, open-label, crossover study in 22 congenital afibrinogenemia patients aged ≥ 12 years, 70 mg kg-1 of new HFC (FIBRYGA, Octapharma AG) or control (Haemocomplettan® P/RiaSTAP™, CSL Behring GmbH) were administered, followed by crossover to the other concentrate. Fibrinogen activity, PK and MCF in plasma were assessed. Results: The concentrates were not bioequivalent for the primary endpoint, AUCnorm (mean ratio, 1.196; 90% confidence interval [CI], 1.117, 1.281). Remaining PK parameters (Cmaxnorm, IVR, t1/2, MRT) reflected bioequivalence between concentrates, except for clearance (mean ratio, 0.836; 90% CI, 0.781, 0.895) and Vss (mean ratio, 0.886; 90% CI, 0.791, 0.994). Mean AUCnorm was significantly larger for the new HFC (1.62 ± 0.45 vs. 1.38 ± 0.47 h kg g L-1 mg-1, P = 0.0001) and mean clearance was significantly slower (0.665 ± 0.197 vs. 0.804 ± 0.255 mL h-1 kg-1, P = 0.0002). Mean MCF increased from 0 mm to 9.68 mm (new HFC) and 10.00 mm (control) 1-hour post-infusion (mean difference, -0.32 mm; 95% CI, -1.70, 1.07, n.s.). No deaths, thromboses, viral seroconversions or serious related adverse events occurred. Conclusions: Bioequivalence was not demonstrated for AUCnorm, clearance and Vss. Larger AUCnorm and slower clearance were observed for the new HFC. Remaining pharmacokinetic parameters reflected bioequivalence to control. Safety profiles and increases in clot strength were comparable between concentrates.

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Mandal SR, Bharati A, Haghighi RR, Arava S, Ray R, Jagia P, et al. Non-invasive characterization of coronary artery atherosclerotic plaque using dual energy CT: Explanation in ex-vivo samples. Physica Medica. 2018;45:198-204.

In this study non-calcified plaque composition is evaluated by Dual Energy CT (DECT). Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) has been used to study the Plaque composition. An attempt has been made to explain the DECT results with EDS analysis. Methods: Thirty-two ex-vivo human cadaver coronary artery samples were scanned by DECT and data was evaluated to calculate their effective atomic number and electron density (Zeff & ρe) by inversion method. Result of DECT was compared with pathology to assess their differentiating capability. The EDS study was used to explain DECT outcome. Results: DECT study was able to differentiate vulnerable plaque from stable with 87% accuracy (area under the curve (AUC):0.85 [95% confidence interval {CI}:0.73–0.98}] and Kappa Coefficient (KC):0.75 with respect to pathology. EDS revealed significant compositional difference in vulnerable and stable plaque at p <.05. The weight percentage of higher atomic number elements like F, Na, Mg, S, Si, P, Cl, K and Ca was found to be slightly more in vulnerable plaques as compared to a stable plaque. EDS also revealed a significantly increased weight percentage of nitrogen in stable plaques. Conclusions: The EDS results were able to explain the outcomes of DECT study. This study conclusively explains the physics of DECT as a tool to assess the nature of non-calcified plaques as vulnerable and stable. The method proposed in this study allows for differentiation between vulnerable and stable plaque using DECT.

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Amirghofran AA, Badr J, Jannati M. Investigation of associated factors with post-operative outcomes in patients undergoing Tetralogy of Fallot correction. BMC Surgery. 2018;18(1).

Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is one of the congenital cardiac abnormality which occurs during embryonic time. Although surgical correction, especially early operation, is the best way to treat patients, still contributing factors in morbidity and mortality is controversial. The objective of this study is to investigate potential factors which might be correlated with post-operative outcomes of TOF. Methods: In this retrospective study, 349 monitored patients with TOF correction were selected. Median of age was 4 (0.66-8) year, 58% of patients were male and 42% were female. Time of inotropic drug, extubation time, and ICU stay were considered as post-operative outcomes which extension of each of them increased the risk of death. Results: Ventricular septal defect enlargement was associated with longer extubation time and ICU stay. Higher ratio of pre-operative haematocrit was correlated with mortality (0.047). Conclusions: Results of this study demonstrated that haematocrit ratio before operation should be considered as a predictive factor, and patients with higher ratio of haematocrit require more care after operation. VSD enlargement is associated with longer extubation time and ICU stay.

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Subject: " Internal Medicine "

 

Abtahi S, Malekzadeh M, Nikravan G, Ghaderi A. Measurement of lung cancer tumor markers in a glass wool company workers exposed to respirable synthetic vitreous fiber and dust. International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 2018;9(1):23-31.

Occupational exposures to respirable synthetic vitreous fiber (SVF) and dust are associated with many lung diseases including lung cancer. Low-dose computed tomography is used for screening patients who are highly suspicious of having lung carcinoma. However, it seems not to be cost-effective. Serum biomarkers could be a useful tool for the surveillance of occupational exposure, by providing the possibility of diagnosing lung cancer in its early stages. Objective: To determine if serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cytokeratin fragment (CYFRA) 21-1 levels in workers exposed more than normal population to respirable SVF and dust may be used as indicators of progression towards lung cancer. Methods: An analytic cross-sectional study, including 145 personnel of a glass wool company, along with 25 age-matched healthy individuals, was conducted to investigate the relationship between occupational exposure to respirable SVFs and dust and serum levels of two lung/pleura serum tumor markers, CEA and CYFRA 21-1, measured by ELISA. Results: Individuals exposed to higher than the recommended levels of respirable SVF had higher serum concentrations of CEA and CYFRA 21-1, compared to controls (p=0.008 and 0.040, respectively), as well as in comparison to those exposed to lower than recommended OSHA levels (p=0.046 and 0.033, respectively). Workers with >9 years work experience, had significantly (p=0.045) higher levels of serum CYFRA 21-1 than those with ≤9 years of experience. Conclusion: It seems that working for >9 years in sites with detectable levels of respirable SVF and dust would increase the levels of known lung cancer serum tumor markers. Transferring these workers to sites with respirable SVF concentrations lower than the limit of detection in the air is recommended.

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Bykhovskaya Y, Fardaei M, Khaled ML, Nejabat M, Salouti R, Dastsooz H, Liu Y, Inaloo S, Rabinowitz YS. TSC1 mutations in Keratoconus Patients with or without tuberous sclerosis. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. 2017;58(14):6462-9

To test candidate genes TSC1 and TSC2 in a family affected by tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) where proband was also diagnosed with bilateral keratoconus (KC) and to test the hypothesis that defects in the same gene may lead to a nonsyndromic KC. METHODS. Next-generation sequencing of TSC1 and TSC2 genes was performed in a proband affected by TSC and KC. Identified mutation was confirmed by Sanger DNA sequencing. Whole exome sequencing (WES) was performed in patients with nonsyndromic KC. Sanger DNA sequencing was used to confirm WES results and to screen additional patients. RT-PCR was used to investigate TSC1 expression in seven normal human corneas and eight corneas from patients with KC. Various in silico tools were employed to model functional consequences of identified mutations. RESULTS. A heterozygous nonsense TSC1 mutation g.132902703C>T (c.2293C>T, p.Gln765Ter) was identified in a patient with TSC and KC. Two heterozygous missense TSC1 variants g.132896322A>T (c.3408A>T, p.Asp1136Glu) and g.132896452G>A (c.3278G>A, p.Arg1093Gln) were identified in three patients with nonsyndromic KC. Two mutations were not present in The Genome Aggregation (GnomAD), The Exome Aggregation (ExAC), and 1000 Genomes (1000G) databases, while the third one was present in GnomAD and 1000G with minor allele frequencies (MAF) of 0.00001 and 0.0002, respectively. We found TSC1 expressed in normal corneas and KC corneas, albeit with various levels. CONCLUSIONS. Here for the first time we found TSC1 gene to be involved in bilateral KC and TSC as well as with nonsyndromic KC, supporting the hypothesis that diverse germline mutations of the same gene can cause genetic disorders with overlapping clinical features.

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Negahdaripour M, Nezafat N, Eslami M, Ghoshoon MB, Shoolian E, Najafipour S, Morowvat MH, Dehshahri A, Erfani N, Ghasemi Y. Structural vaccinology considerations for in silico designing of a multi-epitope vaccine. Infection, Genetics and Evolution. 2018;58:96-109.

Multi-epitope peptide vaccines, as a kind of fusion proteins, usually possess a string-of-beads structure, consisting of several peptidic epitopes, probably adjuvants and linkers. Very numerous options are possible in selecting the order of different segments and linkers. Such factors can affect the vaccine efficacy through impacting physicochemical characteristics and protein tertiary structure. To investigate such relations, eleven different constructs were designed and studied as a multi-epitope prophylaxis vaccine for human papilloma virus (HPV). The vaccine contained two epitopes from the minor protein of virus capsid (L2) of HPV16, two TLR agonists as adjuvants (flagellin and RS09, as TLR5 and TLR4 agonists, respectively), and two universal T-helper epitopes. Since the used TLR4 agonist was inserted in the middle of the construct, its appropriate interaction with the bulky TLR4 was a serious concern. Thus, beyond evaluating the physicochemical properties, secondary and tertiary structures, and conformational B-cell epitopes of the designed constructs, TLR4 agonist exposability was also studied. Besides, the interaction between TLR4 and its agonist was investigated through docking and MD studies. Consequently, one structure (“D”) with proper physicochemical features, a high frequency of conformational B-cell epitopes, and appropriate interactions with TLR4 and TLR5 in docking and MD studies, was selected as a proper candidate. Accordingly, for in silico designing of multi-epitope vaccines, structural concerns should be considered, and the linkers and arrangement of epitopes and adjuvants should be optimized. Considering the diversity of the possible structures, devising computational tools for such investigations would be very valuable.

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Dehshiri M, Khoramrooz SS, Zoladl M, Khosravani SA, Parhizgari N, Motazedian MH, et al. The frequency of Klebsiella pneumonia encoding genes for CTX-M, TEM-1 and SHV-1 extended-spectrum beta lactamases enzymes isolated from urinary tract infection. Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials. 2018;17(1).

The extended- spectrum β-lactamase producing bacteria are widely spread worldwide. The productions of these enzymes cause bacterial resistance to a wide range of antibiotics. The aim of this study was to investigated the frequency of K. pneumonia encoding genes for CTX-M, TEM-1 and SHV-1 extended-spectrum beta lactamases enzymes isolated from urinary tract infection. Methods: This study is cross-sectional study. All K. pneumonia isolates from urine samples, which had grown on media culture more than 105 were delivered to the medical microbiology laboratory. K. pneumonia susceptibility of 198 samples were confirmed by disk diffusion. The gene frequency of genes was determined using PCR, and analyzed using SPSS version 21 software. Finding: Most of the K. pneumonia isolated from urine producing β-lactamase were resistant to cotrimoxazole (53.2%) followed by cefotaxime (50%), ceftazidime, ceftriaxone (40.3%), nalidixic acid (17.8%), amikacin and imipenem (1.6%) and meropenem (0%) respectively. Out of the 198 confirmed isolates of K. pneumonia, 62 cases (31.3%) have the gene phenotype of broad spectrum β-lactamase enzymes and highest frequency of gene phenotype was related to the SHV-1 gene (85.5%). Then in the terms of abundance from highest to lowest CTXM-3 (56.5%), CTXM-1 (27.4%), TEM-1 (16.1%) and CTXM-2 (8.1%), were respectively. Conclusion: This study showed that K. pneumonia isolated from urine producing β-lactamase were resistance to a wide range of antibiotics. Due to the increasing resistance of most antibiotics, control and supervision in the use of antibiotics and identification of broad spectrum β-lactamase enzymes by phenotypic methods appears to be essential.

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Mir SA, Shah MA, Mir MM, Dar BN, Greiner R, Roohinejad S. Microbiological contamination of ready-to-eat vegetable salads in developing countries and potential solutions in the supply chain to control microbial pathogens. Food Control. 2018;85:235-44.

The consumption of ready to eat vegetable salads among consumers in developing countries has increased with the change in life style pattern. However, food borne disease linked to these salads poses safety threats. Studies have shown the occurrence of various microbial pathogens which includes Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, coliforms, Salmonella etc. in these types of ready to eat vegetable salads. In order to overcome these safety threats, to control the microbial pathogens and to enhance the shelf life, different techniques like modified atmospheric conditions, refrigeration, innovative technologies etc. are exploited. This review insight on pathogenic prevalence of ready to eat vegetable salads in developing countries and technological advances used to counter these pathogens.

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Nguyen NMP, Khawajkie Y, Mechtouf N, Rezaei M, Breguet M, Kurvinen E, et al. The genetics of recurrent hydatidiform moles: new insights and lessons from a comprehensive analysis of 113 patients. Modern Pathology. 2018:1-15.

Hydatidiform mole is an aberrant human pregnancy characterized by early embryonic arrest and excessive trophoblastic proliferation. Recurrent hydatidiform moles are defined by the occurrence of at least two hydatidiform moles in the same patient. Fifty to eighty percent of patients with recurrent hydatidiform moles have biallelic pathogenic variants in NLRP7 or KHDC3L. However, in the remaining patients, the genotypic types of the moles are unknown. We characterized 80 new hydatidiform mole tissues, 57 of which were from patients with no mutations in the known genes, and we reviewed the genotypes of a total of 123 molar tissues. We also reviewed mutation analysis in 113 patients with recurrent hydatidiform moles. While all hydatidiform moles from patients with biallelic NLRP7 or KHDC3L mutations are diploid biparental, we demonstrate that those from patients without mutations are highly heterogeneous and only a small minority of them are diploid biparental (8%). The other mechanisms that were found to recur in patients without mutations are diploid androgenetic monospermic (24%) and triploid dispermic (32%); the remaining hydatidiform moles were misdiagnosed as moles due to errors in the analyses and/or their unusual mechanisms. We compared three parameters of genetic susceptibility in patients with and without mutations and show that patients without mutations are mostly from non-familial cases, have fewer reproductive losses, and more live births. Our data demonstrate that patients with recurrent hydatidiform moles and no mutations in the known genes are, in general, different from those with mutations; they have a milder genetic susceptibility and/or a multifactorial etiology underlying their recurrent hydatidiform moles. Categorizing these patients according to the genotypic types of their recurrent hydatidiform moles may facilitate the identification of novel genes for this entity.

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Olliaro P, Grogl M, Boni M, Carvalho EM, Chebli H, Cisse M, et al. Harmonized clinical trial methodologies for localized cutaneous leishmaniasis and potential for extensive network with capacities for clinical evaluation. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 2018;12(1).

Progress with the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) has been hampered by inconsistent methodologies used to assess treatment effects. A sizable number of trials conducted over the years has generated only weak evidence backing current treatment recommendations, as shown by systematic reviews on old-world and new-world CL (OWCL and NWCL). Materials and methods: Using a previously published guidance paper on CL treatment trial methodology as the reference, consensus was sought on key parameters including core eligibility and outcome measures, among OWCL (7 countries, 10 trial sites) and NWCL (7 countries, 11 trial sites) during two separate meetings. Results: Findings and level of consensus within and between OWCL and NWCL sites are presented and discussed. In addition, CL trial site characteristics and capacities are summarized. Conclusions: The consensus reached allows standardization of future clinical research across OWCL and NWCL sites. We encourage CL researchers to adopt and adapt as required the proposed parameters and outcomes in their future trials and provide feedback on their experience. The expertise afforded between the two sets of clinical sites provides the basis for a powerful consortium with potential for extensive, standardized assessment of interventions for CL and faster approval of candidate treatments.

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Ranjbar MJ, Sarkari B, Mowlavi GR, Seifollahi Z, Moshfe A, Abdolahi Khabisi S, et al. Helminth infections of rodents and their zoonotic importance in boyer-ahmad district, southwestern iran. Iranian Journal of Parasitology. 2017;12(4):572-9.

Rodents are considered as reservoirs of various zoonotic diseases including helminthic infections. The current study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of helminth infections in rodents, in Boyer-Ahmad district, Southwestern Iran. Methods: Overall, 52 rodents were captured from various areas of the district by Sherman live traps. The animals were then euthanized and dissected. During necropsy, each organ was examined macroscopically for presence of any cyst or visible parasite. The gastrointestinal tract was removed and their contents were evaluated for larva or adult worms. Trichinel-la larvae in the rodents’ muscles were investigated by both digestion and pathological methods. Results: Twenty-eight (53.8%) of the trapped rodents were male. The rodents were including 25 (48.1%) Meriones persicus, 1(1.9%) Calomyscus bailwardi, 1 (1.9%) Arvicola terresterris, 7 (13.5%) Rattus rattus, 8 (15.4%) R. norvegicus, and 10 (19.2%) Apodemus sylvaticus. Of them, 38 (73.0%) were infected with at least one helminth. Collected rodents were infected with Hymenolepis diminuta (50%), Hymenolepis nana fraterna (28.8%), Skrjabinotaenia sp. (15.4%), Anoplo-cephalidae sp. (15.4%), Cysticercus fasciolaris (5.8%), Trichuris muris (36.5%), Aspiculuris tetraptera (15.4%), Syphacia sp. (5.7%), Rictularia sp. (15.4%), Trichostrongylus sp. (3.8%), and Gongylo-nema sp. (3.8%). M. persicus was the most (84%) infected rodent, yet the differences between rodent genus and helminth infectivity were not statistically significant (P>0.05). Conclusion: The rodents in Boyer-Ahmad district are infected with different helminths infections that some of them are recognized as threat to human health.

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Rayani M, Hatam G, Unyah NZ, Ashrafmansori A, Abdullah WO, Hamat RA. Phylogenetic analysis of giardia lamblia human genotypes in fars province, southern iran. Iranian Journal of Parasitology. 2017;12(4):522-33.

This study is the first phylogenetic genotype analysis of Giardia lamblia in Iran. The main objective was to determine genotyping and identify the sub-assemblages of Giardia lamblia isolates involved in the transmission of giardiasis in Fars Province, south of Iran, in 2012. Methods: Forty G. lamblia isolates were collected from the patient’s fecal samples with gastrointestinal discomfort referred to the health centers and hospitals in Shiraz, Fars Province, south of Iran. Purification of G. lamblia cysts from fecal samples and DNA extraction were performed using monolayer of sucrose density gradient and Phenol-Chloroform-Isoamylalcohol (PCI) respectively. Semi-nested PCR and sequence analysis were then performed using the primers (GDHeF, GDHiF, and GDHiR) which amplified a 432-bp fragment of Giardia glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) gene. Phylogenetic analysis was carried out using a neighbor-joining tree composed of the nucleotide sequences of G. lamblia isolates obtained in this study and the known sequences isolates published in GenBank. Results: G. lamblia sub-assemblage AII was the most prevalent genotype with 80% of the cases and 20% of the cases belong to sub-assemblage BIII and BIV based on the DNA sequence of the gdh. G. lamblia isolates at Fars Province were widely distributed within assemblage A cluster (sub-assemblage AII) and the remaining isolates were dispersed throughout the assemblage B cluster (sub-assemblage BIII and BIV). Conclusion: PCR Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis was a proper molecular method for genotyping and discriminating of the of G. lamblia sub-assemblages in fecal samples, using the glutamate dehydrogenase gene that suggests a human contamination origin of giardiasis.

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Subject: " Musculoskeletal System "

 

Aqaeinezhad Rudbane SM, Rahmdel S, Abdollahzadeh SM, Zare M, Bazrafshan A, Mazloomi SM. The efficacy of probiotic supplementation in rheumatoid arthritis: a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials. Inflammopharmacology. 2018;26(1):67-76.

Probiotics are considered as -immunomodulatory agents; their efficacy as an adjunct therapy option for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), however, remains controversial. The main aim of the present meta-analysis, therefore, was to compare available data from the published randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) recruiting adults with RA which compared probiotics with placebo. The English literature search was performed using Ovid version of Medline, EmBase, Web of Science, and the Central Cochrane library through October 2016 and supplemented by hand searching reference lists. Among 240 citations identified, 4 RCTs (153 participants; 89% female) were included. All data were pooled using a standardized mean difference (SMD) with a 95% CI. Compared to the placebo, probiotics did not change the inflammatory parameters (erythrocyte sedimentation rate, tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-12) and oxidative stress indices (total antioxidant capacity and malondialdehyde) significantly. The borderline significant reduction as a result of probiotic administration was only determined in C-reactive protein [SDM − 0.32 (95% CI − 0.65 to 0.00)]. Among disease activity indices (disease activity score [DAS], tender joint count, and swollen joint count), DAS showed a significant improvement following probiotic treatment with a SMD (95% CI) of − 0.58 (− 0.97 to − 0.19). The number of trials was too small to determine if a strain-, dose-, or duration-response effect was present. Probiotics seem to be less effective in RA; however, to reach a firm conclusion, we need further evidence.

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Subject: " Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology "

 

Daneshi A, Mirsalehi M, Hashemi SB, Ajalloueyan M, Rajati M, Ghasemi MM, et al. Cochlear implantation in children with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder: A multicenter study on auditory performance and speech production outcomes. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology. 2018;108:12-6.

To evaluate the auditory performance and speech production outcome in children with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD). The effect of age on the outcomes of the surgery at the time of implantation was also evaluated. Methods: Cochlear implantation was performed in 136 children with bilateral severe-to- profound hearing loss due to ANSD, at four tertiary academic centers. The patients were divided into two groups based on the age at the time of implantation; Group I: Children ≤24 months, and Group II: subjects >24 months. The categories of auditory performance (CAP) and speech intelligibility rating (SIR) scores were evaluated after the first and second years of implantation. The differences between the CAP and SIR scores in the two groups were assessed. Results: The median CAP scores improved significantly after the cochlear implantation in all the patients (p value < 0.001). The improvement in the CAP scores during the first year in Group II was greater than Group I (p value: 0.007), but the improvement in CAP scores tended to be significantly higher in patients who were implanted at ≤24 months (p value < 0.001). There was no significant difference between two groups in SIR scores at first-year and second-year follow-ups. The evaluation of the SIR improvement revealed significantly higher values for Group I during the second-year follow-up (p value: 0.003). Conclusion: The auditory performance and speech production skills of the children with ANSD improved significantly after cochlear implantation, and this improvement was affected by age at the time of implantation.

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  نشانی ما:   research.sums.ac.ir
معاونت پژوهشی و فناوری دانشگاه علوم پزشكی شيراز
شيراز- خيابان زند- ساختمان مركزی دانشگاه علوم
پزشكی شيراز- طبقه هفتم - معاونت پژوهشی و فناوری
تلفن: 32357282 ،  دورنگار: 32122430
پست الکترونیک: vcrdep@sums.ac.ir


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