خبرنامه علمی معاونت پژوهشی و فناوری دانشگاه علوم پزشکی شیراز
 Summer 2017 / Vol.2 Number 3

 

Subject: " Basic Science "

 

Ramezani AM, Yousefinejad S, Nazifi M, Absalan G. Response surface approach for isocratic separation of some natural anthraquinone dyes by micellar liquid chromatography. Journal of Molecular Liquids. 2017;242:1058-65.

A simple multi-parameter strategy was designed for simultaneous optimization of analysis time and resolution values in micellar liquid chromatography of four natural antraquinone dyes (Alizarin, Purpurin, Danthron, and Quinizarin) in isocratic mode. In this regard, the experimental variables were arranged based on central composite design. To optimize the analysis time of the dyes with satisfactory peak resolutions, the influence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) concentration, volume percentage of acetic acid (ACA), type and volume percentage of the alcoholic modifiers (methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol and pentanol) in the mobile phase were investigated through the use of multivariate analysis. The performed approach was validated in accordance with the guidelines of the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) and the robustness of the method was proven by means of the effect plot. The appropriate combination of the mobile phase was 0.09 mol L− 1 SDS, 10% (v/v %) ethanol-propanol (1:1), and 4% (v/v %) ACA. The applicability of the recommended procedure was estimated on madder root, waste and river water samples for separation and measurement of the four anthraquinone dyes.

Top ^

 

Nouri F, Sadeghpour H, Heidari R, Dehshahri A. Preparation, characterization, and transfection efficiency of low molecular weight polyethylenimine-based nanoparticles for delivery of the plasmid encoding cd200 gene. International Journal of Nanomedicine. 2017;12:5557-69.

Various strategies have been utilized to improve both gene transfer efficiency and cell-induced toxicity of polyethylenimine (PEI), the most extensively investigated cationic polymeric vector. In this study, we sought to enhance transfection efficiency of low molecular weight PEI (LMW PEI) while maintaining its low toxicity by cross-linking LMW PEI via succinic acid linker. These modifications were designed to improve the hydrophilic–hydrophobic balance of the polymer, by enhancing the buffering capacity and maintaining low cytotoxic effects of the final conjugate. Decreased expression of CD200 in the central nervous system has been considered as one of the proposed mechanisms associated with neuroinflammation in multiple sclerosis; therefore, we selected plasmid-encoding CD200 gene for transfection using the modified PEI derivatives. Dynamic light scattering experiments demonstrated that the modified PEIs were able to condense plasmid DNA and form polyplexes with a size of approximately 130 nm. The highest level of CD200 expression was achieved at a carrier to plasmid ratio of 8, where the expression level was increased by 1.5 fold in the SH-SY5Y cell line, an in vitro model of neurodegenerative disorders. Furthermore, the results of in vivo imaging of the LMW PEI-based nanoparticles in the mouse model of multiple sclerosis revealed that fluorescently labeled plasmid encoding CD200 was distributed from the injection site to various tissues and organs including lymph nodes, liver, brain, and finally, kidneys. The nanoparticles also showed the ability to cross the blood–brain barrier and enter the periventricular area.

Top ^

 

Asvar Z, Mirzaei E, Azarpira N, Geramizadeh B, Fadaie M. Evaluation of electrospinning parameters on the tensile strength and suture retention strength of polycaprolactone nanofibrous scaffolds through surface response methodology. Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials. 2017;75:369-78.

Scaffolds should provide sufficient biomechanical support during tissue regeneration for tissue engineering (TE) applications. Electrospun scaffolds are commonly applied in TE applications due to their tunable physical, chemical, and mechanical properties as well as their similarity to extracellular matrix. Although the mechanical properties of electrospun scaffolds are highly dependent on processing parameters, a limited number of studies have systematically investigated this subject. The present study has investigated the effects of the main electrospinning parameters on tensile and suture retention strength of polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds using response surface methodology. Scaffolds morphology and cell-scaffold interaction were also investigated in this study. According to the fitted model, polymer concentration and feed rate have the most significant positive effect on both the tensile and suture retention strength. Whereas applied voltage negatively affected both the tensile and suture retention strength. The effect of distance on tensile strength was not significant while its effect on suture retention was different depending on its values. Changes in biomechanical properties were associated with gross alterations in morphology of the fibers and cell-scaffold interaction. Scaffolds with lowest tensile strength presented a beaded morphology while scaffolds with higher tensile strength presented beadless morphology with worm-like fibers. The increase in tensile strength was correlated with the increase in average diameter of the fibers and pore size. The results of cell culture study showed that fibroblasts stretched and proliferated more on scaffolds with lower tensile strength. The generated model might be helpful when PCL scaffold with desirable tensile and suture retention strength are required. Furthermore, the results suggest that changes in morphology and subsequent cell-scaffold interaction should be considered when these biomechanical properties are optimized.

Top ^

 

Abolhasanzadeh Z, Ashrafi H, Badr P, Azadi A. Traditional neurotherapeutics approach intended for direct nose to brain delivery. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2017;209:116-23.

Ethnopharmacological relevance Nasal delivery systems have a significant role in Persian traditional medicine. Most of them were utilized for central nervous system (CNS)-related disorders. In modern medicine, nasal drug delivery systems for brain delivery are highly regarded. Aim of the study Despite recent advances in drug delivery to the (CNS), delivery of therapeutics to the brain remains a major challenge because of the blood brain barrier (BBB). There are several mechanisms which regulate the drug transfer across the BBB. Local administration methods of therapeutic agents are often associated with adverse events, while the intranasal pathway has been suggested as a non-invasive alternative route to deliver drugs to the brain. This route can bypass the BBB and deliver drug molecules directly to the CNS. There are different nasal formulations have been addressed in Persian traditional pharmacopeias. The present review attempt to explore the famous and practical Qarabadin to find ancient nasal dosage forms. Materials and methods With an explore on traditional herbs in google scholar, scopus and science direct, we have found some original and review articles which have demonstrated our findings on the use of traditional herbs for CNS disorders. Four encyclopedia of multi-component formulations, including Qarabadin Salehi (1766), Qarabadin kabir (1781),Qarabadin Ghaderi (18th century), and Qarabadin Azam (1853), were searched for nasal formulations having CNS-related indications. Formulations were categorized based on dosage forms, and also, diseases which they were suggested for. While the names of illnesses were in ancient terminology of Traditional Medicine, they were translated to modern medical terminology by comparing their definitions, signs, and symptoms from two medical systems. Typical samples of each dosage form have been mentioned with details like amount of ingredients, scientific names of plants, and considerations pertaining to preparation or usage. Results Among all traditional nasal formulations, seven types were found that is used for sicknesses relating to CNS including Saoot, Nafookh, Atoos, Nashoogh, Shamoom, Lakhlakheh, and Bakhoor. Conclusions The findings of this study reveal the physicochemical characteristics of each formulation, route of administration, and type of disease which they are suitable and also present some famous formulations.

Top ^

 

Amanat S, Eftekhari MH, Fararouei M, Bagheri Lankarani K, Massoumi SJ. Genistein supplementation improves insulin resistance and inflammatory state in non-alcoholic fatty liver patients: A randomized, controlled trial. Clinical Nutrition. 2017.

Background & aims: The beneficial effect of genistein has indicated on metabolic disorders and inflammatory state. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of genistein supplementation on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) as the hepatic manifest of metabolic syndrome. Methods: In the present randomized double-blind controlled trial, patients with NAFLD were daily supplemented with either 250 mg genistein (n = 41) or placebo (n = 41) for 8-weeks. Both groups were instructed to follow an energy-balanced diet and physical activity recommendations. And their anthropometric and biochemical indices were assessed before and after the intervention. Results: At the end of the study, the genistein group had lower level of serum insulin (p = 0.001) and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (p = 0.041) compare to the placebo group. In addition serum malondialdehyde (MDA) (p = 0.004), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) (p = 0.045) and interleukin (IL)-6 (p = 0.018) also were lower in the genistein group. Compare with placebo, genistein supplementation significantly reduced waist to hip ratio (p = 0.021), body fat percentage (p = 0.015) and triglyceride (p = 0.018). However, there were no significant changes in BMI, fasting blood glucose (p = 0.122), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (p = 0.536), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (p = 0.265) between the two groups. Conclusions: Oral supplementation with 250 mg genistein for 8-weeks can reduce insulin resistance, oxidative and inflammatory indices along with improvement in fat metabolism in patients with NAFLD. Studies with longer duration and larger samples might be needed to reveal other beneficial effects of genistein.

Top ^

 

Azimi S, Zonouzi A, Firuzi O, Iraji A, Saeedi M, Mahdavi M, Edraki N. Discovery of imidazopyridines containing isoindoline-1,3-dione framework as a new class of BACE1 inhibitors: Design, synthesis and SAR analysis. European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 2017;138:729-37.

Alzheimer's disease is characterized by chronic neurodegeneration leading to dementia. The main cause of neurodegeneration is considered to be the accumulation of amyloid-β. Inhibiting BACE1 is a well-studied approach to lower the burden of amyloid-β aggregates. We designed a series of imidazopyridines-based compounds bearing phthalimide moieties as inhibitors of BACE1. The compounds 8a-o were synthesized by the Groebke–Blackburn–Bienaymé three-component reaction of heteroaromatic amidines, aldehydes and isocyanides. Evaluating the BACE1 inhibitory effects of the synthesized compounds revealed that introducing an aminocyclohexyl moiety in the imidazopyridine core resulted in a significant improvement in its BACE1 inhibitory potential. In this regard, compound 8e was the most potent against BACE1 with an IC50 value of 2.84 (±0.95) μM. Molecular docking revealed that the nitrogen atom of imidazopyridines and the oxygen atom of the phenoxypropyl linker were involved in hydrogen bound interactions with Asp228 and Asp32 of BACE1 active site, respectively. The phthalimide moiety oriented toward the flap pocket and interacted with phe108, lle110, Trp115, Ile118 through van der Waal's and hydrophobic interactions. These findings demonstrate that imidazopyridines-based compounds bearing phthalimide moiety have the potential to decrease amyloid-β levels and ameliorate the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease.

Top ^

 

Derakhshan Z, Ghaneian MT, Mahvi AH, Oliveri Conti G, Faramarzian M, Dehghani M, Ferrante M. A new recycling technique for the waste tires reuse. Environmental Research. 2017;158:462-9.

In this series of laboratory experiments, the feasibility of using fixed bed biofilm carriers (FBBC) manufactured from existing reclaimed waste tires (RWTs) for wastewater treatment was evaluated. To assess polyamide yarn waste tires as a media, the fixed bed sequence batch reactor (FBSBR) was evaluated under different organic loading rate (OLRs). An experimental model was used to study the kinetics of substrate consumption in biofilm. Removal efficiency of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) ranged by 76–98% for the FBSBR compared to 71–96% in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). Removal efficiency of FBBC was significantly increased by inoculating these RWTs carriers. The results revealed that the sludge production yield (Yobs) was significantly less in the FBSBR compared to the SBR (p < 0.01). It also produced less sludge and recorded a lower stabilization ratio (VSS/TSS). The findings show that the Stover-Kincannon model was the best fit (R2 > 99%) in a FBSBR. Results from this study suggest that RWTs to support biological activity for a variety of wastewater treatment applications as a biofilm carrier have high potential that better performance as COD and TSS removal and sludge settling properties and effluent quality supported these findings.

Top ^

 

Kazemi S, Yaghooblou F, Siassi F, Rahimi Foroushani A, Ghavipour M, Koohdani F, Sotoudeh G. Cardamom supplementation improves inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers in hyperlipidemic, overweight, and obese pre-diabetic women: A randomized double-blind clinical trial. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 2017.

Several preclinical studies have shown that spices may decrease the risk of chronic diseases. However, it has been suggested that more clinical trials be carried out to strengthen this preclinical evidence. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum) supplementation on inflammation and oxidative stress in hyperlipidemic, overweight, and obese pre-diabetic women. METHODS: This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial was conducted on 80 pre-diabetic subjects. They randomly received the cardamom supplement (n = 40, 3 g d-1) or identical inert placebo (n = 40) for 8 weeks. Serum concentrations of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor α, total antioxidant capacity, malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl, and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase activity were analyzed at the baseline and after intervention. RESULTS: After the adjustment of some covariates, cardamom supplementation significantly decreased serum hs-CRP (P = 0.02), hs-CRP:IL-6 ratio (P = 0.008), and MDA (P = 0.009) compared with the placebo group. CONCLUSION: Cardamom could improve some parameters of inflammation and oxidative stress in pre-diabetic subjects. Thus it may be useful in reducing complications associated with inflammation and oxidative stress in these patients.

Top ^

 

Kolahi H, Jahangiri M, Ghaem H, Rostamabadi A, Aghabeigi M, Farhadi P, Kamalinia M. Evaluation of Respiratory Protection Program in Petrochemical Industries: Application of Analytic Hierarchy Process. Safety and Health at Work. 2017.

Respiratory protection equipment (RPE) is the last resort to control exposure to workplace air pollutants. A comprehensive respiratory protection program (RPP) ensures that RPE is selected, used, and cared properly. Therefore, RPP must be well integrated into the occupational health and safety requirements. In this study, we evaluated the implementation of RPP in Iranian petrochemical industries to identify the required solutions to improve the current status of respiratory protection. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 24 petrochemical industries in Iran. The survey instrument was a checklist extracted from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration respiratory protection standard. An index, Respiratory Protection Program Index (RPPI), was developed and weighted by analytic hierarchy process to determine the compliance rate (CR) of provided respiratory protection measures with the RPP standard. Data analysis was performed using Excel 2010. Results: The most important element of RPP, according to experts, was respiratory hazard evaluation. The average value of RPPI in the petrochemical plants was 49 ± 15%. The highest and lowest of CR among RPP elements were RPE selection and medical evaluation, respectively. Conclusion: None of studied petrochemical industries implemented RPP completely. This can lead to employees' overexposure to hazardous workplace air contaminants. Increasing awareness of employees and employers through training is suggested by this study to improve such conditions.

Top ^

 

Mohammadi-Sartang M, Mazloom Z, Raeisi-Dehkordi H, Barati-Boldaji R, Bellissimo N, Totosy de Zepetnek JO. The effect of flaxseed supplementation on body weight and body composition: A systematic review and meta-analysis of 45 randomized placebo-controlled trials. Obesity Reviews. 2017; 18(9): 1096-1107.

Flaxseed consumption may be inversely associated with obesity; however, findings of available randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are conflicting. The present study aimed to systematically review and analyse RCTs assessing the effects of flaxseed consumption on body weight and body composition. PubMed, Medline via Ovid, SCOPUS, EMBASE and ISI Web of Sciences databases were searched up to November 2016. Mean changes in body composition indices including body weight, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference were extracted. Effect sizes were expressed as weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Heterogeneity between studies was assessed with the I2 test. Publication bias and subgroup analyses were also performed. The quality of articles was assessed via the Jadad scale. A total of 45 RCTs were included. Meta-analyses suggested a significant reduction in body weight (WMD: -0.99 kg, 95% CI: -1.67, -0.31, p = 0.004), BMI (WMD: -0.30 kgm-2, 95% CI: -0.53, -0.08, p = 0.008) and waist circumference (WMD: -0.80 cm, 95% CI: -1.40, -0.20, p = 0.008) following flaxseed supplementation. Subgroup analyses showed that using whole flaxseed in doses ≥30 g d-1, longer-term interventions (≥12 weeks) and studies including participants with higher BMI (≥ 27 kg m-2) had positive effects on body composition. Whole flaxseed is a good choice for weight management particularly for weight reduction in overweight and obese participants.

Top ^

 

Nabavizadeh M, Moazzami F, Bahmani M, Mirhadi H. The effect of intracanal medicaments on microleakage of mineral trioxide aggregate apical plugs. Iranian Endodontic Journal. 2017;12(3):329-33.

The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of calcium hydroxide, double and triple antibiotic paste on the sealing ability of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) apical plugs. Methods and Materials: A total of 90 extracted teeth with single canals were prepared and randomly divided into four experimental groups (n=20). Intra-canal medicaments were applied for 3 weeks. MTA was placed through the access opening and condensed to the apical area and then fluid filtration technique was utilized to evaluate sealing ability after 1, 7, 14 and 30 days. Results: Triple antibiotic paste significantly reduced the sealing ability of MTA plug compared with double antibiotic paste (P=0.024) and normal saline (P=0.04) groups on day 1. The sealing ability was not different on days 14 and 30 between experimental groups (P>0.05). Conclusion: All medicaments can be used without any long term effect on microleakage.

Top ^

 

Salehi S, Taheri MN, Azarpira N, Zare A, Behzad-Behbahani A. State of the art technologies to explore long non-coding RNAs in cancer. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine. 2017.

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) comprise a vast repertoire of RNAs playing a wide variety of crucial roles in tissue physiology in a cell-specific manner. Despite being engaged in myriads of regulatory mechanisms, many lncRNAs have still remained to be assigned any functions. A constellation of experimental techniques including single-molecule RNA in situ hybridization (sm-RNA FISH), cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (CLIP employed to shed light on lncRNA cellular localization, structure, interaction networks and functions. Here, we review these and other experimental approaches in common use for identification and characterization of lncRNAs, particularly those involved in different types of cancer, with focus on merits and demerits of each technique.

Top ^

 

Yousefinejad S, Eftekhari R, Honarasa F, Zamanian Z, Sedaghati F. Comparison between the gas-liquid solubility of methanol and ethanol in different organic phases using structural properties of solvents. Journal of Molecular Liquids. 2017;241:861-9.

Methanol and ethanol are two useful solvents in various analytical processes, including extraction and separation sciences. Because of the importance of ethanol and methanol's solubility/miscibility, this work has reported interesting descriptive results on the effects of topology, polarization, molecular mass and volume of the solvents and their electronegativity in miscibility of them with methanol and ethanol. Good models were obtained with good performance in training set, test set, cross validation and y-scrambling. The correlation coefficients of leave many out cross validation and test set were above 0.92 in the methanol's model and these values for the ethanol model were 0.93 and 0.85 respectively which showed stability and prediction ability of both suggested QSPR models. Different training and test sets were selected to indicate the stability of results and no dependency on the composition of training/test sets.

Top ^

 

Menezes JCJMDS, Edraki N, Kamat SP, Khoshneviszadeh M, Kayani Z, Mirzaei HH, Miri R, Erfani N, Nejati M, Cavaleiro JAS, Silva T, Saso L, Borges F, Firuzi O. Long Chain Alkyl Esters of Hydroxycinnamic Acids as Promising Anticancer Agents: Selective Induction of Apoptosis in Cancer Cells. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2017;65(33):7228-39.

Cancer is the major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs) are naturally occurring compounds and their alkyl esters may possess enhanced biological activities. We evaluated C4, C14, C16, and C18 alkyl esters of p-coumaric, ferulic, sinapic, and caffeic acids (19 compounds) for their cytotoxic activity against four human cancer cells and also examined their effect on cell cycle alteration and apoptosis induction. The tetradecyl (1c) and hexadecyl (1d) esters of p-coumaric acid and tetradecyl ester of caffeic acid (4c), but not the parental HCAs, were selectively effective against MOLT-4 (human lymphoblastic leukemia) cells with IC50 values of 0.123 ± 0.012, 0.301 ± 0.069 and 1.0 ± 0.1 μM, respectively. Compounds 1c, 1d, and 4c significantly increased apoptotic cells in sub-G1 phase and activated the caspase-3 enzyme in MOLT-4 cells. Compound 1c was 15.4 and 23.6 times more potent than doxorubicin and cisplatin, respectively, against the drug resistant MES-SA-DX5 uterine sarcoma cells. These p-coumarate esters were several times less effective against NIH/3T3 fibroblast cells. Docking studies showed that 1c may cause cytotoxicity by interaction with carbonic anhydrase IX. In conclusion, long chain alkyl esters of p-coumaric acid are promising scaffolds for selective apoptosis induction in cancer cells.

Top ^

 

Rashidian H, Hadji M, Marzban M, Gholipour M, Rahimi-Movaghar A, Kamangar F, Malekzadeh R, Weiderpass E, Rezaianzadeh A, Moradi A, Babhadi-Ashar N, Ghiasvand R, Khavari-Daneshvar H, Haghdoost AA, Zendehdel K. Sensitivity of self-reported opioid use in case-control studies: Healthy individuals versus hospitalized patients. PLoS ONE. 2017;12(8): Article number e0183017.

Background: Several case-control studies have shown associations between the risk of different cancers and self-reported opium use. Inquiring into relatively sensitive issues, such as the history of drug use, is usually prone to information bias. However, in order to justify the findings of these types of studies, we have to quantify the level of such a negative bias. In current study, we aimed to evaluate sensitivity of self-reported opioid use and suggest suitable types of control groups for case-control studies on opioid use and the risk of cancer. Methods: In order to compare the validity of the self-reported opioid use, we cross-validated the response of two groups of subjects 1) 178 hospitalized patients and 2) 186 healthy individuals with the results of their tests using urine rapid drug screen (URDS) and thin layer chromatography (TLC). The questioners were asked by trained interviewers to maximize the validity of responses; healthy individuals were selected from the companions of patients in hospitals. Results: Self-reported regular opioid use was 36.5% in hospitalized patients 19.3% in healthy individuals (p-value> 0.001).The reported frequencies of opioid use in the past 72 hours were 21.4% and 11.8% in hospitalized patients and healthy individuals respectively. Comparing their responses with the results of urine tests showed a sensitivity of 77% and 69% among hospitalized patients and healthy individuals for self-reports (p-value = 0.4). Having corrected based on the mentioned sensitivities; the frequency of opioid regular use was 47% and 28% in hospitalized patients and healthy individuals, respectively. Regular opioid use among hospitalized patients was significantly higher than in healthy individuals (p-value> 0.001). Conclusion: Our findings showed that the level of opioid use under-reporting in hospitalized patients and healthy individuals was considerable but comparable. In addition, the frequency of regular opioid use among hospitalized patients was significantly higher than that in the general population. Altogether, it seems that, without corrections for these differences and biases, the results of many studies including case-control studies on opioid use might distort findings substantially.

Top ^

 

Kazemi R, Motamedzade M, Golmohammadi R, Mokarami H, Hemmatjo R, Heidarimoghadam R. Field Study of Effects of Night Shifts on Cognitive Performance, Salivary Melatonin, and Sleep. Safety and Health at Work. 2017.

Night shift work is associated with many problems such as sleep deprivation, sleepiness, decreased cognitive performance, increased human errors, and fatigue. This study set out to measure cognitive performance, melatonin rhythms, and sleep after different consecutive night shifts (7 vs. 4) among control room operators (CORs). Methods: The participants included 60 CORs with a mean age of 30.2 years (standard deviation, 2.0) from a petrochemical complex located in Southern Iran. Cognitive performance was assessed using the n-back task and continuous performance test. To evaluate melatonin, saliva was collected and tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. To assess sleep and sleepiness, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Karolinska Sleepiness Scale were used, respectively. Results: Individuals who worked 7 consecutive night shifts had a significantly better cognitive performance and sleep quality than those who worked 4 consecutive night shifts. However, salivary melatonin profile and sleepiness trend were not affected by shift type. Conclusion: The main duty of CORs working night shifts at the studied industry included managing safety-critical processes through complex displays; a responsibility that demands good cognitive performance and alertness. It is suggested that an appropriate number of consecutive night shifts in a rotating shift system should be planned with the ultimate aim of improving CROs performance/alertness and enhancing safety.

Top ^

Subject: " Brain and Neurons "

 

Ghareghani M, Zibara K, Azari H, Hejr H, Sadri F, Jannesar R, Ghalamfarsa G, Delaviz H, Nouri E, Ghanbari A. Safflower seed oil, containing oleic acid and palmitic acid, enhances the stemness of cultured embryonic neural stem cells through Notch1 and induces neuronal differentiation. Frontiers in Neuroscience. 2017;11(AUG): Article number 446.

Embryonic neural stem cells (eNSCs) could differentiate into neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. This study was aimed to determine the effect of safflower seed oil, which contains linoleic acid (LA), oleic acid (OA), and palmitic acid (PA), on cultured eNSC proliferation and differentiation, in comparison to linoleic acid alone. Results showed that safflower seed oil, but not LA, increased significantly the viability and proliferation of eNSCs. Moreover, treatment of NSCs by safflower seed oil, but not LA, resulted in a significant increase in mRNA levels of notch1, hes1, and Ki-67, and protein levels of notch intracellular domain (NICD), in comparison to controls, indicating an enhancement of stemness. Finally, safflower seed oil, but not LA, caused an increase in the number of oligodendrocytes (MBP+), astrocytes (GFAP+) and neurons (β-III tubulin+) of which only the increase in β-III tubulin positive cells was statistically significant. In summary, OA and PA, present in safflower seed oil may prove beneficial for the enhancement of eNSCs and their neuronal differentiation.

Top ^

 

Eghlidospour M, Ghanbari A, Mortazavi SMJ, Azari H. Effects of radiofrequency exposure emitted from a GSM mobile phone on proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis of neural stem cells. Anatomy and Cell Biology. 2017;50(2):115-23.

Due to the importance of neural stem cells (NSCs) in plasticity of the nervous system and treating neurodegenerative diseases, the main goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of radiofrequency radiation emitted from a GSM 900-MHz mobile phone with different exposure duration on proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of adult murine NSCs in vitro. We used neurosphere assay to evaluate NSCs proliferation, and immunofluorescence assay of neural cell markers to examine NSCs differentiation. We also employed alamarBlue and caspase 3 apoptosis assays to assess harmful effects of mobile phone on NSCs. Our results showed that the number and size of resulting neurospheres and also the percentage of cells differentiated into neurons decreased significantly with increasing exposure duration to GSM 900-MHz radiofrequency (RF)-electromagnetic field (EMF). In contrast, exposure to GSM 900-MHz RF-EMF at different durations did not influence cell viability and apoptosis of NSCs and also their astrocytic differentiation. It is concluded that accumulating dose of GSM 900-MHz RF-EMF might have devastating effects on NSCs proliferation and neurogenesis requiring more causations in terms of using mobile devices.

Top ^

 

Rahmani F, Haghshenas H, Mehrabanpour A, Mani A, Mahmoodi M. Shiraz Verbal Learning Test (SVLT): Normative Data for Neurologically Intact Speakers of Persian. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology. 2017;32(5):598-609.

Memory assessment plays an important role in the diagnosis of neurodegenerative disorders. Several tests, such as the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT), have been developed for this purpose, yet a variety of different factors can affect one's performance on such tests, the most important of which are demographic and cultural variables. The present study examined the norming process performed on the CVLT-revised and aimed to devise a new test, the Shiraz Verbal Learning Test (SVLT), to better meet the needs of speakers of Persian. Method In order to collect normative data, a group of 1275 Persian-speaking individuals consisting of both sexes (676 women and 599 men) aged 20-89 years old were selected for this study. Results The results of Pearson's Correlation analysis indicated that there was a significant negative correlation between age and SVLT performance and a positive one between education and SVLT performance (p <.001) among the whole sample. Moreover, between-group analyses showed that the female participants performed significantly better than their male counterparts on nearly all subtests (Total Trails 1-5, Short-Delay Free Recall, Short-Delay Cued Recall, Long-Delay Free Recall, Long-Delay Cued Recall, and Total Learning Slope), with the only exception being Long-Delay Yes/No Recognition. Conclusions These results suggest that the SVLT has the potential to be further developed among different culture and language groups. This test can also be used for clinical and research purposes for patients with neuropsychiatric disorders who need further neuropsychological assessment.

Top ^

 

Asadi-Pooya AA, Tinker J. Delay in diagnosis of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures in adults: A post hoc study. Epilepsy and Behavior. 2017;75:143-5.

The aim of the current post hoc study was to investigate factors associated with delay in diagnosis of adult patients with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES). Methods We retrospectively investigated all patients with PNES admitted to the epilepsy-monitoring unit at the Jefferson Comprehensive Epilepsy Center from 2012 through 2016. We identified the median time to diagnosis of PNES and divided the patients into two groups. We studied factors associated with delay in diagnosis of PNES. Results In all, 49 patients (39 women and 10 men) were studied. Mean age at the time of admission was 40 ± 16 years and at the onset of the seizures was 34 ± 16 years. Disease duration was 5.6 ± 8.2 years. The median for time to diagnosis was 3 years. Patients with early diagnosis (before 3 years after seizure onset) (21 patients) and patients with late diagnosis (delay of 3 years or more from onset) (28 patients) were compared. Only history of head trauma had significant association with the delay in diagnosis: 2 of 19 patients (7%) with an early diagnosis and 11 of 28 patients (39%) with a late diagnosis reported head trauma (P = 0.02). Conclusion Delay in diagnosis of PNES is common, and some factors (e.g., history of head trauma) may contribute to this delay. It is important that physicians involved in the management of seizures appreciate the importance of making an early and definitive diagnosis of PNES.

Top ^

 

Asadi-Pooya AA, Valente K, Alessi R, Tinker J. Semiology of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures: An international cross-cultural study. Epilepsy and Behavior. 2017;75:210-2.

We compared the semiology of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) between patients from the USA and Brazil. This international cross-cultural comparative study may expand understanding of PNES across the borders. Methods We retrospectively investigated all patients with PNES admitted to one epilepsy center in the USA and one in Brazil. We classified their seizures into four classes: generalized motor, akinetic, focal motor, and subjective symptoms. All patients were interviewed by an epileptologist in both countries and were administered psychological assessment measures, including questions about PNES risk factors. For the statistical analyses, we compared patients from the two nations. Results Eighty-nine patients (49 from the USA and 40 from Brazil) were studied. Patients from the two countries were not significantly different with regard to sex and age, but patients from Brazil had earlier age at onset (26 years vs. 34 years; P = 0.004) and a significantly greater delay in diagnosis (9.9 years vs. 5.6 years; P = 0.001). Some characteristics of PNES were different between the two groups; patients from the USA had generally more seizure types and more often reported subjective seizures (55% in the USA vs. 10% in Brazil; P = 0.0001). Clinical and historical characteristics of the patients were not significantly different. Conclusion Delay in diagnosis of PNES may represent a major factor in resource-limited countries. Large multicenter cross-cultural studies may reveal subtle but significant cross-cultural differences with respect to the semiological, clinical, and historical aspects of PNES; however, patients with PNES share more similarities than differences.

Top ^

Subject: " Dentistry "

 

Shirazi MM, Abouali O, Emdad H, Nabavizadeh M, Mirhadi H, Ahmadi G. Numerical and analytical investigation of irrigant penetration into dentinal microtubules. Computers in Biology and Medicine. 2017; 89: 1-17.

Irrigation is one of the most important steps in root canal therapy. Sodium hypochlorite is inserted into the root canal to eliminate bacteria and dissolve necrotic tissue. Dentinal tubules are micrometer sized channels along the dentin thickness. An irrigant should have the ability to penetrate into these tubules to remove bacteria residing in them. The difference between the concentrations of the inserted irrigant and the dentinal tubule fluid is the main factor of penetration. This study attempts to model dentinal tubules with precise dimensions and to study the time dependent irrigant penetration into them by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The effects of needle type and position in the dentinal tubule were also considered. The results showed that concentration distribution would be different when the tubule was modeled as a frustum compared to the cylindrical shape tubule. Dentinal tubule curvature, however, did not have a noticeable effect in irrigant penetration. It was also concluded that when the needle working length is 3 mm, concentration can be considered constant at the tubule's entrance for tubules located at more than 1 mm from the apex. Moreover, by irrigating the root canal with a side-vented needle instead of an open-ended one, the concentration would be less for the tubules located in the apex region. Analytical solutions for different cases were also obtained, and their predictions were found to be in good agreement with the numerical results. Therefore, the presented analytical solutions can be directly used to obtain irrigant concentration in tubules with no need for additional computer simulations.

Top ^

 

Adl A, Shahravan A, Farshad M, Honar S. Success rate and time for bypassing the fractured segments of four NiTi rotary instruments. Iranian Endodontic Journal. 2017;12(3):349-53.

The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the success rate and time required for bypassing the fractured segments of four different nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary systems. Methods and Materials: This study was conducted on the mesiobuccal canals of 60 mandibular molars with fully-formed apices. Fifteen Flex Master, K3, RaCe and Hero Shaper instruments with 0.04 taper and tip size of #30 and 25 mm in length, were obtained. These instruments were notched at a point 3 mm from the tip of the instrument and were driven into the canals using a handpiece until the instruments fractured and became lodged therein. In the next step, an endodontist tried to bypass the fractured segment using K-files. The number of bypassed samples and the time required for bypassing of each sample were recorded. The Chi-square test was used to compare the bypassing rate among the experimental groups. One-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey’s post hoc test was conducted to compare the time taken for bypassing of the fractured fragments. Results: One instrument in Flex Master group and two broken segments in each of the K3 and Hero groups were not bypassed. All of the samples in RaCe group were bypassed. No significant difference was found among four tested groups regarding rate of bypassing (P=0.738). The time taken to bypass fragments in the Hero group was significantly more than in those of K3 (P=0.047) and RaCe (P=0.024). Conclusion: Under the limitations of this study, design features of rotary files can influence the time needed to bypass separated fragments.

Top ^

 

Adl A, Sobhnamayan F, Shojaee NS, Azad FT, Bahmani M. Effect of propylene glycol on the sealing ability of mineral trioxide aggregate and calcium-enriched mixture cement apical barriers. Iranian Endodontic Journal. 2017;12(3):318-22.

Propylene glycol (PG) improves the handling, physical, and chemical properties of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). This study aimed to evaluate the effect of PG on the sealing ability of MTA and calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) apical barriers. Methods and Materials: A total of 70 extracted human maxillary single-rooted teeth were prepared using ProTaper rotary system. The apical 3 mm of the root tips were resected and the root canals were enlarged with Peeso reamers up to #4, to create open apex teeth. The teeth were then randomly divided into four experimental (n=15) and two control (n=5) groups. Group1: MTA+ MTA liquid, group2; MTA+MTA liquid (80%) + PG (20%), group3; CEM+CEM liquid, group4; CEM+ liquid (80%) + PG (20%). Cements were mixed with their respective mixing agents and a 4-mm thick apical plug was fabricated. The microleakage was measured on day 1, 3, 7 and 21 using a fluid filtration technique. The repeated measures ANOVA and Sidak test were used to analyze the data. Results: All experimental groups demonstrated various amounts of microleakage. No significant difference was found between MTA and CEM cement (P=0.193), regardless of time and liquid components. There was no significant difference was observed between liquids (P=0.312) in all time intervals. The rate of microleakage decreased over time and a significant differences was observed between all intervals (P<0.05), except 3-7 and 7-21 (P=0.190) days. Conclusion: PG demonstrated neither a positive nor a negative effect on the sealing ability of Angelus MTA and CEM cement.

Top ^

 

Shokouhi MM, Abbaszadegan A, Ameri A, Sharifian SM, Nabavizadeh M. The effect of calcium chloride on push-out bond strength of calcium-enriched mixture cement and mineral trioxide aggregate. Iranian Endodontic Journal. 2017;12(3):334-7.

This in vitro study investigated the effect of adding 10% calcium chloride (CaCl2) on push out bond strength of calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) to root canal dentin. Methods and Materials: A total of 120 root dentin slices with 2 mm thickness were prepared from sixty single-rooted human teeth. Dentinal discs were enlarged to achieve 1.3 mm diameter. The specimens were randomly allocated into eight groups (n=15). Dentin discs were filled with either CEM cement or MTA with or without CaCl2 and the push out test was performed after 3 and 21 days. Data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA test. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: There was an interaction effect amongst all groups (P=0.028). After 3 days, CEM cement showed a significantly lower bond strength than other groups (P<0.05) while MTA demonstrated significantly higher bond strength than CEM cement with or without CaCl2 (P=0.001). After 21 days, CEM cement with or without CaCl2 had no significant difference with other groups (P>0.05). However, the bond strength of MTA decreased when CaCl2 was added (P=0.011). Conclusion: The addition of 10% CaCl2 increased the push out bond strength of CEM cement and improved it over time; while, this substance aggravated this property for MTA.

Top ^

 

Koohpeima F, Mokhtari MJ, Khalafi S. The effect of silver nanoparticles on composite shear bond strength to dentin with different adhesion protocols. Journal of Applied Oral Science. 2017;25(4):367-73.

In dentistry, restorative materials and oral bacteria are believed to be responsible for restoration failure. To make long-lasting restorations, antibacterial agents should be made. Inorganic nanoparticles and their nano composites are applied as good antibacterial agents. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of silver nanoparticles on composite shear bond strength using one etch and rinse and one selfetch adhesive systems. Material and Methods: Silver nanoparticles were prepared. Transmission electron microscope and X-ray diffraction were used to characterize the structure of the particles. Nanoparticles were applied on exposed dentin and then different adhesives and composites were applied. All samples were tested by universal testing machine and shear bond strength was assesed. Results: Particles with average diameter of about 20 nm and spherical shape were found. Moreover, it was shown that pretreatment by silver nanoparticles enhanced shear bond strength in both etch and rinse, and in self-etch adhesive systems (p≤0.05). Conclusions: Considering the positive antibacterial effects of silver nanoparticles, using them is recommended in restorative dentistry. It seems that silver nanoparticles could have positive effects on bond strength of both etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesive systems. The best results of silver nanoparticles have been achieved with Adper Single Bond and before acid etching.

Top ^

 

Shafiei F, Memarpour M, Vafamand N, Mohammadi M. Effect of antibacterial/adhesive approaches on bonding durability of fiber posts cemented with self-etch resin cement. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry. 2017;9(9):e1096-e102.

Background: longevity of post-retained restoration is highly depended on bonding stability of fiber post (FP) to root dentin. This study evaluated the effect of different antibacterial/adhesive approaches on bonding durability of FPs luted into root canal with a self-etch cement. Material and Methods: Seventy-two human maxillary central incisor roots were divided into six groups after endodontic treatment, based on the antibacterial/adhesive treatments as follows: 1)ED primer II (ED, control); 2) Clearfil Protect Bond (PB); 3) 2% chlorhexidine (CH) pretreatment + ED primer II (CH+ED); 4) CH-incorporated into ED primer II (CH in ED); 5) CH pretreatment + Clearfil SE Bond (CH+SE); and 6)CH-incorporated into SE primer (CH in SE). The FPs were then cemented using PanaviaF2.0. After micro-slicing the bonded root dentin, a push-out bond strength (PBS) test was performed immediately or after two years of water storage. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests (α=0.05). Results: The effects of antibacterial/adhesive approach, time and interaction between the main factors were significant (p=0.01). There was no significant difference between the immediate groups, except between the CH+ED group (the lowest PBS) and PB and CH in SE groups (the highest PBS) (p ≤ 0.03). After aging, the same difference was observed (p ≤ 0.02); the control group exhibited a significantly lower PBS compared to the other groups (p ≤ 0.01), except for CH+ED. Aging significantly decreased PBS of all the groups (p ≤ 0.01); the control group exhibited the highest reduction. Conclusions: CH incorporated into self-etch primers or in pretreatment step prior to two-step self-etch adhesive and antibacterial adhesive could improve bond stability of self-etch cemented fiber post. However, none of these was capable of inhibiting bond degradation over time.

Top ^

 

Sharafeddin F, Kowkabi M, Shoale S. Evaluation of the effect of home bleaching agents on surface microhardness of different glass-ionomer cements containing hydroxyapatite. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry. 2017;9(9):e1075-e80.

Background: Home bleaching agents may exert some negative effects on surface hardness of restorative materials such as glass-ionomer cements (GICs). Since some studies have shown that some components such as hydroxyapatite (HA), as a bioactive glass, can improve the mechanical properties of dental materials, the effect of bleaching agents on surface hardness of GICs containing hydroxyapatite is questionable. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of home bleaching agents on the surface hardness of two different commercially available GICs containing hydroxyapatite. Material and Methods: 80 disk-shaped specimens were made from two different GICs, including resin modified glass-ionomer and Zirconomer. Each material was divided into four groups (n=10): 1. control, 2. 20 %wt. hydroxyapatite- containing, 3. bleached and 4. bleached 20 %wt. hydroxyapatite-containing. Group 1 and 2 specimens were stored in distilled water for 2 weeks while group 3 and 4 specimens were treated with 15% carbamide peroxide in that period. Surface hardness was tested with Vickers surface hardness tester. Data were analyzed with 3-way ANOVA and mean comparison done by post hoc Tukey tests (p < 0.05). Results: In general RMGI had a significantly highest Vickers surface hardness value among all groups. 15% carbamide peroxide reduced surface hardness compared to control groups (RMGI and Zr) significantly. In the HAcontaining GICs groups, bleaching agent did not significantly changed the surface hardness value. Conclusions: In this study we concluded that applied treatments (bleaching and adding HA) in implicit percentages reduced surface hardness of GICs. Also we suggest more studies in clinical conditions be done to verify these results.

Top ^

Subject: " Diagnostic Imaging and Radiotherapy "

 

Sobhani Z, Behnam MA, Emami F, Dehghanian A, Jamhiri I. Photothermal therapy of melanoma tumor using multiwalled carbon nanotubes. International Journal of Nanomedicine. 2017;12:4509-17.

Photothermal therapy (PTT) is a therapeutic method in which photon energy is transformed into heat rapidly via different operations to extirpate cancer. Nanoparticles, such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have exceptional optical absorbance in visible and near infrared spectra. Therefore, they could be a good converter to induce hyperthermia in PTT technique. In our study, for improving the dispersibility of multiwalled CNTs in water, the CNTs were oxidized (O-CNTs) and then polyethylene glycol (PEG) was used for wrapping the surface of nanotubes. The formation of a thin layer of PEG around the nanotubes was confirmed through Fourier transform infrared, thermogravimetric analysis, and field emission scanning electron microscopy techniques. Results of thermogravimetric analysis showed that the amount of PEG component in the O-CNT-PEG was approximately 80% (w/w). Cell cytotoxicity study showed that O-CNT was less cytotoxic than pristine multiwalled nanotubes, and O-CNT-PEG had the lowest toxicity against HeLa and HepG2 cell lines. The effect of O-CNT-PEG in reduction of melanoma tumor size after PTT was evaluated. Cancerous mice were exposed to a continuous-wave near infrared laser diode (λ=808 nm, P=2 W and I=8 W/cm2) for 10 minutes once in the period of the treatment. The average size of tumor in mice receiving O-CNT-PEG decreased sharply in comparison with those that received laser therapy alone. Results of animal studies indicate that O-CNT-PEG is a powerful candidate for eradicating solid tumors in PTT technique.

Top ^

Subject: " Education "

 

Nasiri M, Minaei B, Sharifi Z. Adjusting data sparsity problem using linear algebra and machine learning algorithm. Applied Soft Computing Journal. 2017.

Data sparsity is one of the most important challenges in data in which each user only rates a small set of items. This problem is critical with increasing dimensions of data. We present an idea based on linear algebra and machine learning to solve this problem. This research applies a framework to cluster users and items in similar groups simultaneously. This method imputes appropriate values for missing data based on similar ratings in each cluster. This has the advantages of more accurate process results in each cluster due to users' similarity of interests, and the reduction of sparsity negative effect. This approach is represented on 3dimensional data of users, items and times. The experimental results on MovieLense datasets, show that the method can help to overcome data sparsity, and increase the accuracy of prediction.

Top ^

Subject: " Endocrinology and Metabolism "

 

Bordbar MR, Haghpanah S, Zarei T, Dabbaghmanesh MH, Omrani GR, Saki F. Evaluation of bone mineral density in children with sickle-cell anemia and its associated factors in the south of Iran: a case-control study. Archives of Osteoporosis. 2017;12(1): Article number 70.

Abstract: Summary: Sickle-cell anemia is a hereditary hemoglobin disorder among children. We showed that the low bone mass is prevalent among these children, and it has a negative association with hemoglobin. In spite of using supplementary 200 IU/day vitamin D, 59.6% of children with sickle-cell anemia are vitamin D deficient. We suggest that early diagnosis and treatment of this problem could improve the bone health in them. Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation.

Top ^

 

AminiLari Z, Fararouei M, Amanat S, Sinaei E, Dianatinasab S, AminiLari M, Daneshi N, Dianatinasab M. The effect of 12 weeks aerobic, resistance, and combined exercises on omentin-1 levels and insulin resistance among type 2 diabetic middle-aged women. Diabetes and Metabolism Journal. 2017;41(3):205-12.

Recent studies have shown that omentin-1 derived from adipokines can affect physiological regulations and some metabolic dis-eases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of 12 weeks of aerobic (cycle ergometer), resistance, and combined exercises on omentin-1 level, glucose and insulin resistance indices in overweight middle age women with T2DM. In this study, 60 overweight middle age diabetic women were selected using simple random sampling and they were assigned to three groups of aerobic exercise (n=12), resistant exercise (n=12) and combined exercise (n=13), and one control group (n=15). Exercises were done in a three times per week sessions for a total of 12 weeks. Blood samples were collected before each exercise session and 24 hours after of the last session. Results: Present study showed that fasting blood sugar decreased significantly in all intervention groups, while homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) decreased only in the aerobic and combined exercises groups. Furthermore, there was a significant increase in the omentin-1 level only in the combined exercise group. Conclusion: Compared to aerobic and resistance exercises, 12 weeks of combined exercise was more efficient in improving HOMA-IR and increasing serum omentin-1 among women with T2DM.

Top ^

 

Rahmdel S, Farahbod B, Mazloomi SM, Sagheb MM, Babajafari S, Abdollahzadeh SM. Dietary intake of phosphorous and protein in Shiraz, Iran: A comparison of three assessment methods. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 2017;62:177-83.

Today diet is a major focus of public health and the introduction of accurate dietary assessment methods is of central interest in nutrition surveys. The present study was conducted to compare the dietary intakes of phosphorous and protein by 3 different procedures: duplicate portion sampling (DPS) of 21 hospital meals combined with either instrumental analysis or the use of food composition tables (FCTs), and 24-h dietary recalls plus FCTs. The mean protein intakes were 116.4 ± 19.9, 95.5 ± 13.3, and 63.1 ± 3.9 g/day, respectively; the value determined by the instrumental analysis was significantly higher than FCT-based estimates (P < 0.05). The mean intakes of phosphorous estimated by the spectrophotometric analysis and dietary recalls were significantly lower than those obtained from DPS method combined with FCTs (1200.3 ± 236.0 and 957.8 ± 69.2 vs 1473.6 ± 212.4 mg/day, respectively; P < 0.05). Concerning the dietary phosphorus to protein ratio, the FCT-based values were higher than the instrumental measures (P < 0.05). Regardless of the assessment method, the intakes exceeded the recommended dietary allowances (RDAs). FCTs, therefore, is not perceived to be a reliable basis for phosphorous and protein intake assessment. Development and validation of national FCTs can be considered as a promising solution for restriction of errors occurring in FCT-based assessment techniques.

Top ^

 

Barba FJ, Putnik P, Bursać Kovačević D, Poojary MM, Roohinejad S, Lorenzo JM, Koubaa M. Impact of conventional and non-conventional processing on prickly pear (Opuntia spp.) and their derived products: From preservation of beverages to valorization of by-products. Trends in Food Science and Technology. 2017;67:260-70.

Background In recent years, both food researchers and food industry have shown growing interest in Opuntia fruits, as they constitute a good source of phytochemicals such as phenolics, vitamin C, vitamin E, polysaccharides and betalains. Many of these compounds have shown antioxidant, anti-cancer, antiatherosclerotic and/or hepatoprotective properties. Moreover, the fruit is also a source of dietary fibers, which promote bowel transit, thus preventing constipation. Scope and approach Due to these properties, Opuntia fruits are considered as functional products offering numerous health benefits when are consumed as fresh or processed product. However, these compounds can lose their properties and could be transformed into antinutrients depending on processing conditions. Therefore, there is a dire need for investigating the effect of processing on bioactive compounds of Opuntia Spp. On the other hand, during Opuntia fruit processing, a large amount of waste and by-products are generated including peel, pulp and seed, which are a great source of high-added value compounds. Nowadays, extraction of valuable compounds from Opuntia by-products is drawing more and more attention, making it on the verge of commercialization. Key findings and conclusions The processing and preservation techniques strongly influence the stability of phytochemicals present in Opuntia fruits and their derived products. The available reports suggest that, along with conventional methods, novel non-thermal technologies are efficient to recover high-added value compounds from Opuntia fruit by-products/waste. Overall, high pressure processing and pulsed electric field technology have emerged as promising methods to extend Opuntia beverages shelf-life, and supercritical CO2 extraction as an effective tool to extract oils.

Top ^

 

Mohammadi-Sartang M, Mazloom Z, Sherafatmanesh S, Ghorbani M, Firoozi D. Effects of supplementation with quercetin on plasma C-reactive protein concentrations: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2017;71(9):1033-9.

Promising experimental studies suggest that quercetin has potential anti-inflammatory effects. However, the results of current clinical trials on quercetin's effects on the C-reactive protein (CRP), a sensitive inflammatory biomarker, are ambiguous. We conducted a meta-analysis of available randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to resolve this inconsistency and quantify the net effect of quercetin on circulating CRP concentrations. A systematic search was performed in several databases including SCOPUS, PubMed-Medline and Google Scholar until 16 June 2016. We used a random-effects model in combination with weight mean difference (WMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for data analysis. Standard methods were used for the assessment of heterogeneity, meta-regression, sensitivity analysis and publication bias. The meta-analysis of seven RCTs (10 treatment arms) showed a significant reduction of circulating CRP levels (WMD: -0.33 mg/l; 95% CI: -0.50 to -0.15; P<0.001) following quercetin supplementation. In the subgroup analysis, a significant reducing effect was observed in trials with ≥500 mg/day dosage (WMD: -0.34 mg/l; 95% CI: -0.52, -0.16; P≤0.001) and in those with CRP <3 mg/l (WMD: -0.34 mg/l; 95% CI: -0.51, -0.18; P≤0.001). In meta-regression, there was no association between changes in CRP concentrations, dose of supplementation and CRP baseline values. Our findings showed a significant effect of quercetin supplementation on the C-reactive protein - especially at doses above 500 mg/day and in patients with CRP <3 mg/l.

Top ^

 

Akhlaghi M, Zare M, Nouripour F. Effect of soy and soy isoflavones on obesity-related anthropometric measures: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. Advances in Nutrition. 2017;8(5):705-17.

Soy may be a suitable food for anti-obesity efforts because of its high protein and isoflavone content. We conducted this meta-analysis to evaluate potential effects of soy and soy isoflavones on weight, waist circumference, and fat mass. PubMed, MEDLINE, Scopus, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were searched. Twenty-four trials with soy and 17 trials with isoflavones passed the eligibility stage. According to the results, soy showed no overall statistically significant effect on weight, waist circumference, or fat mass, but a significant increasing effect on weight was observed in some circumstances: for instance, in obese subjects [mean difference (MD): 0.80 kg; 95% CI: 0.15, 1.45 kg; P = 0.02], with ingestions of ≥40 g soy protein/d (MD: 0.94 kg; 95% CI: 0.11, 1.77 kg; P = 0.03), with short-term applications (1-3 mo) (MD: 0.45 kg; 95% CI: 0.05, 0.86 kg; P = 0.03), and when soy was compared with meat (MD: 0.36 kg; 95% CI: 0.09, 0.64 kg; P = 0.03) and whey protein (MD: 1.53 kg; 95% CI: 0.10, 2.96 kg; P = 0.04). In contrast to the effects of soy on weight, soy significantly decreased waist circumference in older ages (MD: -0.36 cm; 95% CI: -0.71, -0.01 cm; P = 0.04), in women (MD: -0.32 cm; 95% CI: -0.57, -0.08 cm; P = 0.01), and at doses of < 40 g soy protein/d (MD: -0.31 cm; 95% CI: -0.57, -0.05 cm; P = 0.02). Isoflavone studies, conducted only in women, showed that isoflavones may reduce body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) (MD: -0.26; 95% CI: -0.55, 0.04; P = 0.085), especially in dosages < 100 mg/d (MD: -0.48; 95% CI: -0.90, -0.06; P = 0.02) and in intervention periods of 2-6 mo (MD: -0.28; 95% CI: -0.56, 0.00; P = 0.053), but no effect was observed in higher doses or longer intervention periods. Also, a trend for reduced BMI after consumption of isoflavones was observed in Caucasians (MD:-0.35; 95% CI:-0.74, 0.04; P = 0.08).Overall, results showed that, although soy is the major source of isoflavones, soy and isoflavones may have different impacts on weight status.

Top ^

Subject: " Gastrointestinal System "

 

Fattahi MR, Malek-Hosseini SA, Sivandzadeh GR, Safarpour AR, Bagheri Lankarani K, Taghavi AR, Ejtehadi F. Clinical Course of Ulcerative Colitis after Liver Transplantation in Patients with Concomitant Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis and Ulcerative Colitis. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. 2017;23(7):1160-7.

The natural history of ulcerative colitis (UC) after liver transplantation (LT) for primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) remains ill defined. This study aimed to evaluate the course of UC after LT for PSC. Methods: The course of UC, including the clinical colitis severity index, was evaluated in patients with concomitant PSC and UC who received LT for PSC-induced end-stage liver disease. A total of 167 (55.4%) patients with PSC had concurrent inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Of 159 cases of IBD that started before LT, 152 (95.5%) had UC and 7 (4.5%) had Crohn's disease. Results: The mean duration of patient follow-up after LT was 47.7 ± 33.5 months. The simple clinical colitis activity index scores after LT showed no change in 15.8% of patients, decreased in 78.3%, and increased in 5.9%. Seventy-one (46.7%) patients required no change in their specific UC treatment after LT, whereas 12 (7.9%) had to use more aggressive treatments after LT. In 69 (45.4%) patients, treatment could be tapered although not discontinued. Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the duration of LT (odds ratio = 1.02; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.05, P = 0.03) was significantly associated with aggravation in the clinical course of UC after LT. Posttransplant cyclosporine exposure (odds ratio = 0.14; 95% confidence interval, 0.015-0.79, P = 0.028) and pretransplant body weight (odds ratio = 0.81; 95% confidence interval, 0.71-0.93, P = 0.003) demonstrated a protective effect. Conclusions: Although the clinical course of UC remains unchanged or even improves in the majority of patients after LT, some may experience an aggressive course. The type of immunosuppression after transplantation can affect UC activity after LT. Cyclosporine may have some protective effects post-LT.

Top ^

 

Noorani M, Azarpira N, Karimian K, Heli H. Erlotinib-loaded albumin nanoparticles: A novel injectable form of erlotinib and its in vivo efficacy against pancreatic adenocarcinoma ASPC-1 and PANC-1 cell lines. International Journal of Pharmaceutics. 2017;531(1):299-305.

Erlotinib was loaded on albumin nanoparticles for the first time and the cytotoxic effect of the resulting nanoparticles against ASPC-1 and PANC-1 pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell lines was evaluated. The carrier (albumin nanoparticles, ANPs) was synthesized by desolvation method using a mixed solvent followed by thermal crosslinking for stabilization. ANPs and the drug-loaded ANPs were characterized by field emission scanning and transmission electron microscopies, particle size analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The nanoformulation had a size of <14 nm with a good monodispersity. Drug loading and encapsulation efficiencies were evaluated as 27 and 44%. Cytotoxicity assays after 72 h revealed the potential of ANPs to improve erlotinib toxicity (54% against 34% of free drug toward ASPC-1 cell line, and 52% against 30% toward PANC-1 cell line). Values of IC50 were obtained for both cell lines and indicated significant reduction in the erlotinib dose necessary for killing the cells, while, ANPs were completely safe. The results demonstrated that erlotinib-loaded ANPs had a remarkable potential for pancreatic cancer drug delivery.

Top ^

 

Vazin A, Eslami D, Sahebi E. Evaluating the antiemetic administration consistency to prevent chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting with the standard guidelines: A prospective observational study. Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management. 2017;13:1151-7.

Nausea and vomiting (NV) are the most prevalent adverse effects of chemotherapy (CT). This study was conducted to evaluate adherence of the health care team to standard guidelines for antiemetics usage to prevent acute chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in a large CT center. A prospective study was performed during an 11-month period on patients receiving CT. A form was designed to collect patients’ demographic information and their chemotherapeutic and antiemetic regimen data. The Likert scale was used to measure the effectiveness of the antiemetics in patients. In this study, the effect of patient-related risk factors on the incidence rate of CINV was examined. Based on the results, CINV events were reported by 74.4% of patients. The antiemetic regimen of 71.2% of the patients complied with the guidelines. The complete response, complete protection, and complete control end points did not differ significantly between patients undergoing guidelines-consistent prophylaxis or guidelines-inconsistent prophylaxis. The females clearly showed a higher incidence rate of CINV (P=0.001) during the first course of CT (P=0.006). A history of motion sickness did not affect the incidence of NV. The maximum compliance error occurred for the use of aprepitant, as 16.16% of the patients who were receiving aprepitant did not comply with its instructions. The results of this study highlight how CINV was controlled in this center, which was significantly lower than that of the global standard. Perhaps, factors such as noncompliance to antiemetic regimens with standard guidelines and the failure to adhere to the administration instructions of the antiemetics were involved in the incomplete control of CINV.

Top ^

 

Koohi-Hosseinabadi O, Ranjbar Z, Sepehrimanesh M, AndisheTadbir A, Poorbaghi SL, Bahranifard H, Tanideh N, Koohi-Hosseinabadi M, Iraji A. Biochemical, hematological, and pathological related healing effects of Elaeagnus angustifolia hydroalcoholic extract in 5-fluorouracil-induced oral mucositis in male golden hamster. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2017:1-7.

Oral mucositis (OM) is one of the cancer chemotherapy-related side effects which can affect the quality of life of affected patients. This study was designed to investigate the healing effect of Elaeagnus angustifolia in 5-flurouracil (5-FU)-induced OM in golden hamster. Fifty-six adult male golden hamsters received three intraperitoneal injections of 5-FU at a dose of 60 mg/kg on days 0, 5, and 10. The cheek pouch mucosa was scratched superficially under local anesthesia. Then, two horizontal scratches were made across the everted cheek pouch on days 3 and 4. All treatments were started on day 12 for equal number of animals in control group with no treatments, gel base group that was treated with carboxy methyl cellulose as gel base which used in preparation of the topical gel, topical gel group that used gel containing 10% hydroalcoholic extract of E. angustifolia (HEEA) topically, and dietary group which was treated with 300 mg/kg HEEA. At 2 and 5 days after treatment, blood and pouch tissue sampling were done and analyzed for blood composition, tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) level, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities plus histopathological evaluations. Both topically and orally HEEA-treated groups showed a significant relief in OM compared to the control and base gel groups. However, the systemic form had higher efficiency in some parts especially decreasing the MPO (0.27 ± 0.17 vs. 0.56 ± 0.17 IU/L) and increasing SOD (6.46 ± 0.15 vs. 5.36 ± 0.18 IU/L) activities in pouch tissue in comparison to topical form mostly at 5 days after treatment. It seems that hydroalcoholic extract of E. angustifolia can be used as an appropriate drug choice for the treatment of oral mucositis based on its healing stimulatory and anti-inflammatory properties.

Top ^

Subject: " Genitourinary System "

 

Nazari-Vanani R, Azarpira N, Heli H, Karimian K, Sattarahmady N. A novel self-nanoemulsifying formulation for sunitinib: Evaluation of anticancer efficacy. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces. 2017;160:65-72.

Breast cancer is the top cancer and a main cause of death among women. The incidence of this cancer is increasing in the world. Sunitinib maleate is an oral, small-molecule, multi-targeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor that inhibits tumor cell proliferation and angiogenesis, and has been administrated as an anticancer drug. Self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) is an isotopic mixture of an oil, a surfactant and usually a co-surfactant, which can spontaneously form fine oil-in-water nanoemulsion in aqueous media. Here, a SNEDDS composed of 15% ethyl oleate (as an oil phase), 30% tween 80 (as a surfactant), and 55% PEG 600 (as a co-surfactant) was prepared and developed as a carrier for sunitinib. The average droplet size of sunitinib-loaded SNEDDS was 29.5 ± 6.3 nm with a stability of more than one month. Sunitinib release from SNEDDS was enhanced accompanied by a controlled dissolution of the drug. Cytotoxicity studies on 4T1 and MCF-7 cell lines indicated a toxicity enhancement in sunitinib by SNEDDS. To inspect the bioavailability of the drug-loaded SNEDDS after oral administration with a dose of 50 mg kg−1, the maximum plasma concentration and the mean area under the plasma concentration-time curve were measured. It was found that these parameters were increased 1.45- and 1.24-times respectively, compared to a drug suspension.

Top ^

 

Sattarahmady N, Rahi A, Heli H. A signal-on built in-marker electrochemical aptasensor for human prostate-specific antigen based on a hairbrush-like gold nanostructure. Scientific Reports. 2017;7(1): Article number 11238.

A green electrodeposition method was firstly employed for the synthesis of round hairbrush-like gold nanostructure in the presence of cadaverine as a size and shape directing additive. The nanostructure which comprised of arrays of nanospindles was then applied as a transducer to fabricate a signal-on built in-marker electrochemical aptasensor for the detection of human prostate-specific antigen (PSA). The aptasensor detected PSA with a linear concentration range of 0.125 to 128 ng mL-1 and a limit of detection of 50 pg mL-1. The aptasensor was then successfully applied to detect PSA in the blood serum samples of healthy and patient persons.

Top ^

 

Aliabadi E, Namavar MR, Mortezaee K, Toolee H, Keshtgar S, Mirkhani H, Akbari M, Rastegar T, Solhjoo S. Kisspeptin expression features in the arcuate and anteroventral periventricular nuclei of hypothalamus of letrozole-induced polycystic ovarian syndrome in rats. Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 2017:1-7.

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder of the reproductive system characterized by polycystic ovaries and androgen excess. Letrozole is a nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor that is used in experimental research to induce PCOS. Kisspeptin is an essential protein in regulation of cyclicity. Kisspeptin receptor is expressed in the hypothalamus and pituitary glands, and kisspeptin containing neurons are affected from sex steroid hormones. We aimed to investigate the number of kisspeptin-positive cells in the arcuate (Arc) and anteroventral periventricular nuclei (AVPV) of hypothalamus in the letrozole-induced PCOS. Methods: 40 female Wistar rats were divided into the proestrus control, diestrus control, proestrus vehicle, diestrus vehicle and letrozole. Animals were sacrificed after 3 weeks, and sera, ovary and brain samples were harvested for further evaluations. Results: Letrozole group had high weight gain, high numbers of ovarian follicular cysts, high levels of luteinizing hormone and testosterone and increase number of kisspeptin-positive cells in the Arc nucleus, as compared with the control groups (P ≤ 0.05 vs. proestrus control and proestrus vehicle). Letrozole group showed a decrease in the number of kisspeptin-positive cells in the AVPV nucleus (P ≤ 0.05 vs. proestrus control and proestrus vehicle). Conclusion: Our findings show that the number of kisspeptin-positive cells may be affected from letrozole, and that the changes in the number of these cells may be in favor of the appearance of PCOS features in this group.

Top ^

Subject: " Internal Medicine "

 

Negahdaripour M, Eslami M, Nezafat N, Hajighahramani N, Ghoshoon MB, Shoolian E, Dehshahri A, Erfani N, Morowvat MH, Ghasemi Y. A novel HPV prophylactic peptide vaccine, designed by immunoinformatics and structural vaccinology approaches. Infection, Genetics and Evolution. 2017;54:402-16.

Human papillomavirus (HPV)-caused cervical cancer is the fourth common female cancer globally. Despite availability of three effective vaccines in market, development of HPV prophylactic vaccines is still pursued due to affordability issues and type-restricted protection of the marketed vaccines. Investigational second generation prophylactic HPV vaccines are mostly exploiting epitopes from the virus minor capsid protein (L2), which despite many advantages suffer from low immunogenicity, a common problem of epitope vaccines. Adjuvants such as TLR agonists may overcome this drawback. In this study, different immunoinformatics and computational tools were employed to design a novel peptide vaccine for protection against cervical cancer. Two immunodominant epitope domains (amino acids 10–36 and 65–89) from the L2 protein of HPV 16 with potential to promote Th1, Th2, CTL, B-cell, and INF-gamma responses were selected. Flagellin, as a TLR5 agonist, a short synthetic TLR4 agonist, and two universal T-helper agonists (PADRE and TpD) were added to ensure strong induction of immune responses. Different segments were joined by proper linkers, and the physicochemical, structural, and immunological characteristics of the resultant construct were evaluated. Modeling, refinement, and validation were done to achieve a high quality 3D structure of the vaccine protein. Docking and molecular dynamics (MD) studies demonstrated an appropriate and stable interaction between the vaccine and TLR5 during the simulation period. Totally, a potential vaccine candidate with proper immunological and physicochemical properties was designed for HPV prophylaxis. The designed vaccine is expected to be capable of generating humoral and cellular responses, which are vital for protection against HPV.

Top ^

 

Sadeghpour H, Khabnadideh S, Zomorodian K, Pakshir K, Hoseinpour K, Javid N, Faghih-Mirzaei E, Rezaei Z. Design, synthesis, & biological activity of new triazole & nitro-triazole derivatives as antifungal agents. Molecules. 2017;22(7): Article number 1150.

In this study two series of fluconazole derivatives bearing nitrotriazole (series A) or piperazine ethanol (series B) side chain were designed and synthesized and then docked in the active site of lanosterol 14α-demethylase enzyme (1EA1) using the Autodock 4.2 program (The scripps research institute, La Jolla, CA, USA). The structures of synthesized compound were confirmed by various methods including elemental and spectral (NMR, CHN, and Mass) analyses. Then antifungal activities of the synthesized compound were tested against several natural and clinical strains of fungi using a broth microdilution assay against several standard and clinical fungi. Nitrotriazole derivatives showed excellent and desirable antifungal activity against most of the tested fungi. Among the synthesized compounds, 5a-d and 5g, possessing nitrotriazole moiety, showed maximum antifungal activity, in particular against several fluconazole-resistant fungi.

Top ^

 

Motamedi M, Mirhendi H, Zomorodian K, Khodadadi H, Kharazi M, Ghasemi Z, Shidfar MR, Makimura K. Clinical evaluation of β-tubulin real-time PCR for rapid diagnosis of dermatophytosis, a comparison with mycological methods. Mycoses. 2017; 60(10): 692-696.

Following our previous report on evaluation of the beta tubulin real-time PCR for detection of dermatophytosis, this study aimed to compare the real-time PCR assay with conventional methods for the clinical assessment of its diagnostic performance. Samples from a total of 853 patients with suspected dermatophyte lesions were subjected to direct examination (all samples), culture (499 samples) and real-time PCR (all samples). Fungal DNA was extracted directly from clinical samples using a conical steel bullet, followed by purification with a commercial kit and subjected to the Taq-Man probe-based real-time PCR. The study showed that among the 499 specimens for which all three methods were used, 156 (31.2%), 128 (25.6%) and 205 (41.0%) were found to be positive by direct microscopy, culture and real-time PCR respectively. Real-time PCR significantly increased the detection rate of dermatophytes compared with microscopy (288 vs 229) with 87% concordance between the two methods. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the real-time PCR was 87.5%, 85%, 66.5% and 95.2% respectively. Although real-time PCR performed better on skin than on nail samples, it should not yet fully replace conventional diagnosis.

Top ^

 

Ranmadugala D, Ebrahiminezhad A, Manley-Harris M, Ghasemi Y, Berenjian A. The effect of iron oxide nanoparticles on Bacillus subtilis biofilm, growth and viability. Process Biochemistry. 2017; 62:231-240.

Bacillus subtilis is one of the key microorganisms for the industrial production of many value added products. The fermentation of this bacterium is associated with biofilm formation that results in major process and operational issues. The study of the effect of magnetic nanoparticles on the bacterial cells can immensely contribute to designing intensified bioprocess methods Present study was aimed at understanding the effect of superparamagnetic iron oxide (naked IONs) and 3-aminopropyltriethoxy silane coated IONs (IONs@APTES) on biofilm formation, growth and viability of Bacillus subtilis. Both IONs were successfully prepared and characterised by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray powder diffraction patterns (XRD) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). IONs@APTES at 100. μg/mL were found to significantly reduce the total biofilm biomass without affecting the cell viability compared with the behavior of naked IONS, which significantly affected the viability of B. subtilis at high concentrations without any significant redution in biofilm biomass. This suggests an active role of IONs@APTES in eliminating the biofilm formation as compared to the naked IONs. This work suggests the possibility of using IONs@APTES coated bacteria for a range of applications for future industrial fermentation with Bacillus subtilis.

Top ^

 

Ebrahimipour M, Sadjjadi SM, Yousofi Darani H, Najjari M. Molecular studies on cystic Echinococcosis of Camel (Camelus dromedarius) and report of Echinococcus ortleppi in Iran. Iranian Journal of Parasitology. 2017;12(3):323-31.

Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is one of the most important zoonotic diseases; caused by different genotypes of Echinococcus spp. Camels have an important role in transmission cycle of E. granulosus especially, in desert areas. This study aimed to investigate molecular characterization of hydatid cysts isolates from onehumped camel (Camelus dromedarius) and to show its molecular and phylogenic status in this important CE host in the central part of Iran. Methods: Twenty hydatid cyst samples (14 fertile and 6 calcified) were collected from 56 slaughtered camels in Central part of Iran. Extraction of DNA from 14 fertile samples was achieved followed by molecular studies on two mitochondrial genes (nad1 and cox1). Results: Blast and phylogenetic analysis on sequenced genes showed the presence of G1 (28.6%), G3 (28.6%) and G6 (35.7%) genotypes in the samples. However, one sample was detected as E. ortleppi (G5) with 99% homology with G5 isolated from camel in Egypt (AB921055) and Sudan (JX912709). Conclusion: Presence of E. ortleppi, originally the cattle genotype, is reported for the first time in Iran. Due to the potential of infecting human by E. ortleppi; more attention should be paid to this zoonotic genotype in this region.

Top ^

Subject: " Musculoskeletal System "

 

Karimi MT, Salami F, Esrafilian A, Heitzmann DWW, Alimusaj M, Putz C, Wolf SI. Sound side joint contact forces in below knee amputee gait with an ESAR prosthetic foot. Gait and Posture. 2017;58:246-51.

The incidence of knee and hip joint osteoarthritis in subjects with below knee amputation (BK) appears significantly higher compared to unimpaired subjects, especially in the intact side. However, it is controversial if constant higher loads on the sound side are one of the major factors for an increased osteoarthritis (OA) incidence in subjects with BK, beside other risk factors, e.g. with respect to metabolism. The aim wasto investigate joint contact forces (JCF) calculated by a musculoskeletal model in the intact side and to compare it with those of unimpaired subjects and to further elucidate in how far increased knee JCF are associated with increased frontal plane knee moments. A group of seven subjects with BK amputation and a group of ten unimpaired subjects were recruited for this study. Gait data were measured by 3D motion capture and force plates. OpenSim software was applied to calculate JCF. Maximum joint angles, ground reaction forces, and moments as well as time distance parameters were determined and compared between groups showing no significant differences, with some JCF components of knee and hip even being slightly smaller in subjects with BK compared to the reference group. This positive finding may be due to the selected ESAR foot. However, other beneficial factors may also have influenced this positive result such as the general good health status of the subjects or the thorough and proper fitting and alignment of the prosthesis.

Top ^

 

Gholamzadeh S, Zahmatkeshan M, Zarenezhad M, Ghaffari E, Hoseni S. The pattern of self-harm in Fars Province in South Iran: A population-based study. Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine. 2017;51:34-8.

Non-suicidal self-harm includes cutting, scratching, burning and minor overdosing. There have been few studies that have examined the rate and pattern of self-harm among different individuals of the society. We performed a population-based study to determine different aspects of non-suicidal self-harm in cases referred to legal medicine organization of Fars Province and south Iran. In a population-based longitudinal survey, we applied data from cases referred to legal medicine organization of Fars province. The survey included questions about the history, method, frequency, age of onset and help-seeking for non-suicidal self-harm. The data about non-suicidal self-harm were collected since 2007 to 2011 and analyzed using students' T-test for continuous data and χ2 for binary or categorical data using SPSS ver. 21.0. Totally 2166 individuals were diagnosed who had ever harmed themselves. Self-injuries such as cutting, scratching and self-hitting were the most common forms of non-suicidal self-harm (83.2%). The mean age of onset was 25.7 ± 2.6 years. Self-injury was more frequent in males and individuals with lower education levels mostly unemployed. The most frequent injury site was posterior side of the body for example shoulders (157; 9.8%) and the most type of the injury was bruise in 398(55.26%) cases. Hard objects (1197; 55.26%) were the most used devices for self-injury followed by cutting and sharp devices. Among those who reported non-suicidal self-harm, 56% had sought help while self-injury. We found a high prevalence of non-suicidal self-harm in different individuals of the society in Fars province since 2007 to 2011. Many mental-health symptoms as well as legal and financial gains should be evaluated for any association with this behavior.

Top ^

 

Jamshidi A, Gharibdoost F, Vojdanian M, Soroosh SG, Soroush M, Ahmadzadeh A, Nazarinia MA, Mousavi M, Karimzadeh H, Shakibi MR, Rezaieyazdi Z, Sahebari M, Hajiabbasi A, Ebrahimi AA, Mahjourian N, Rashti AM. A phase III, randomized, two-armed, double-blind, parallel, active controlled, and non-inferiority clinical trial to compare efficacy and safety of biosimilar adalimumab (CinnoRA®) to the reference product (Humira®) in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Research and Therapy. 2017;19(1): 168.

This study aimed to compare efficacy and safety of test-adalimumab (CinnoRA®, CinnaGen, Iran) to the innovator product (Humira®, AbbVie, USA) in adult patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: In this randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, non-inferiority trial, a total of 136 patients with active RA were randomized to receive 40 mg subcutaneous injections of either CinnoRA® or Humira® every other week, while receiving methotrexate (15 mg/week), folic acid (1 mg/day), and prednisolone (7.5 mg/day) over a period of 24 weeks. Physical examinations, vital sign evaluations, and laboratory tests were conducted in patients at baseline and at 12-week and 24-week visits. The primary endpoint in this study was the proportion of patients achieving moderate and good disease activity score in 28 joints-erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR)-based European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) response. The secondary endpoints were the proportion of patients achieving American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for 20% (ACR20), 50% (ACR50), and 70% (ACR70) responses along with the disability index of health assessment questionnaire (HAQ), and safety. Results: Patients who were randomized to CinnoRA® or Humira® arms had comparable demographic information, laboratory results, and disease characteristics at baseline. The proportion of patients achieving good and moderate EULAR responses in the CinnoRA® group was non-inferior to the Humira® group at 12 and 24 weeks based on both intention-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol (PP) populations (all p values >0.05). No significant difference was noted in the proportion of patients attaining ACR20, ACR50, and ACR70 responses in the CinnoRA® and Humira® groups (all p values >0.05). Further, the difference in HAQ scores and safety outcome measures between treatment arms was not statistically significant. Conclusion: CinnoRA® was shown to be non-inferior to Humira® in terms of efficacy at week 24 with a comparable safety profile to the reference product.

Top ^

Subject: " Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology "

 

Razeghinejad MR, Nowroozzadeh MH. Optic disk hemorrhage in health and disease. Survey of Ophthalmology. 2017;62(6):784-802.

Optic disk hemorrhage occurs in all age groups from neonates to the elderly. Optic disk hemorrhage is best known for its association with visual field loss and progression in patients with glaucoma; however, it may occur in conjunction with other ocular or systemic conditions as well as in healthy individuals. It may also be the first sign of a sight-threatening condition. Variations in the shape, location, and size of the optic disk hemorrhage, as well as associated ocular and systemic signs or symptoms, may help determine the underlying pathology. We address the epidemiology, demographics, pathophysiology, clinical presentations and implications, differential diagnoses, and management of eyes with optic disk hemorrhage in diseased and healthy subjects

Top ^

 

Dehghani C, Srinivasan S, Edwards K, Pritchard N, Russell AW, Malik RA, Efron N. Presence of Peripheral Neuropathy Is Associated With Progressive Thinning of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer in Type 1 Diabetes. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. 2017;58(6):BIO234-BIO9.

Reduced retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness has been demonstrated in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) in cross-sectional studies. This prospective study defines longitudinal alterations to the RNFL thickness in individuals with type 1 diabetes without (DPN-ve) and with (DPN+ve) DPN and in relation to risk factors for nerve damage. Methods: A cohort of 105 individuals with type 1 diabetes (20% DPN+ve) with predominantly mild or no retinopathy and no previous retinal photocoagulation underwent spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) at baseline, 2 years, and 4 years. SD-OCT scans were acquired at 3.45-mm diameter around the optic nerve head and the overall RNFL and RNFL in the nasal, superior, temporal, and inferior quadrants were quantified. By including serial quantified RNFL parameters, linear mixed models were applied to assess the change in RNFL thickness over time and to explore the associations with other clinical variables. Results: There was a significant decline in the overall RNFL thickness (-0.7 μm/y, P = 0.02) and RNFL in the superior quadrant (-1.9 μm/y, P < 0.01) in the DPN+ve group compared with DPN-ve group. The overall RNFL thickness and RNFL in the superior and nasal quadrants were inversely associated with age (β = -0.29, -0.41, and -0.29, respectively; P ≤ 0.02). Sex, retinopathy, diabetes duration, hemoglobin A1c, lipid profile, blood pressure, cigarette use, alcohol consumption, and body mass index did not show any significant effects (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Individuals with DPN showed a progressive RNFL thinning overall and in the superior quadrant, which was more pronounced in older individuals. There may be common pathways for retinal and peripheral neurodegeneration that are independent of conventional DPN risk factors.

Top ^

Subject: " Pulmonary and Immune System "

 

Kolahi H, Jahangiri M, Ghaem H, Rostamabadi A, Aghabeigi M, Farhadi P, Kamalinia M. Evaluation of Respiratory Protection Program in Petrochemical Industries: Application of Analytic Hierarchy Process. Safety and Health at Work. 2017.

Respiratory protection equipment (RPE) is the last resort to control exposure to workplace air pollutants. A comprehensive respiratory protection program (RPP) ensures that RPE is selected, used, and cared properly. Therefore, RPP must be well integrated into the occupational health and safety requirements. In this study, we evaluated the implementation of RPP in Iranian petrochemical industries to identify the required solutions to improve the current status of respiratory protection. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 24 petrochemical industries in Iran. The survey instrument was a checklist extracted from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration respiratory protection standard. An index, Respiratory Protection Program Index (RPPI), was developed and weighted by analytic hierarchy process to determine the compliance rate (CR) of provided respiratory protection measures with the RPP standard. Data analysis was performed using Excel 2010. Results: The most important element of RPP, according to experts, was respiratory hazard evaluation. The average value of RPPI in the petrochemical plants was 49 ± 15%. The highest and lowest of CR among RPP elements were RPE selection and medical evaluation, respectively. Conclusion: None of studied petrochemical industries implemented RPP completely. This can lead to employees' overexposure to hazardous workplace air contaminants. Increasing awareness of employees and employers through training is suggested by this study to improve such conditions.

Top ^

Subject: " Surgery "

 

Ghahramani L, Minaie MR, Arasteh P, Hosseini SV, Izadpanah A, Bananzadeh AM, Ahmadbeigi M, Hooshanginejad Z. Antibiotic therapy for prevention of fistula in-ano after incision and drainage of simple perianal abscess: A randomized single blind clinical trial. Surgery (United States). 2017;162(5):1017-1025.

Background: Much controversy exists regarding the role of antibiotics in the development of fistula in-ano after incision and drainage. We evaluated the role of postoperative antibiotics in the prevention of fistula in-ano after incision and drainage of perianal abscess. Methods: In a randomized single blind clinical trial study, 307 patients were randomly selected from those referring for incision and drainage of perianal abscess at Shahid Faghihi Hospital, Shiraz, Iran, during September 2013 to September 2014. Patients were allocated randomly either to receive 7 days of oral metronidazole and ciprofloxacin in addition to their standard care or to only receive standard care without any antibiotics after they were discharged from the hospital. Patients were followed for 3 months and final results were evaluated.The study was registered at the clinical trial registry (www.irct.ir; Irct201311049936n7). Results: Seven patients were lost to follow-up. Those who used prophylactic antibiotics (n = 155) had significantly lower rates of fistula formation compared with those who did not use any medication (n = 144; P < .001). Men had higher rates of fistula formation (P = .002). Patients who used more cigarettes had higher rates of fistula development (P = .001). In the univariate analysis, only postoperative antibiotic use showed a protective role against fistula formation (odds ratio = 0.426; confidence interval, 0.206-0.881). In the regression analysis postoperative antibiotic use remained protective against fistula development (odds ratio = 0.371; confidence interval, 0.196-0.703), furthermore male sex presented as a risk factor for developing fistula in-ano (odds ratio = 3.11; confidence interval, 1.31-7.38). Conclusion: Postoperative prophylactic antibiotic therapy including ciprofloxacin and metronidazole play an important role in preventing fistula in-ano formation. Considering the complications of fistula in-ano formation and the minor side effects of antibiotic therapy, based on our results, a 7-10 course of postoperative antibiotics is advised after incision and drainage of perianal abscess.

Top ^

 

Baradaran-Rafii A, Delfazayebaher S, Aghdami N, Taghiabadi E, Bamdad S, Roshandel D. Midterm outcomes of penetrating keratoplasty after cultivated oral mucosal epithelial transplantation in chemical burn. Ocular Surface. 2017;15(4):789-794.

Purpose To evaluate the midterm outcomes of penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) after cultivated oral mucosal epithelial transplantation (COMET) in patients with bilateral total limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) due to chemical burn. Methods: In this prospective interventional nonrandomized case series, optical PKP was performed in patients with severe stromal opacity after successful COMET. Main outcome measures were stability of the ocular surface, visual acuity improvement and corneal graft survival. Results: Fourteen eyes of 14 patients with successful COMET were included. Time interval between PKP and COMET was 7.6 ± 1.3 months (6-9 months). Mean follow-up period was 28.2 ± 8 months (14-40 months, median 30 months). Epithelial healing was complete after 7 days in all eyes. Thirteen eyes had stable ocular surface without epithelial defect at final examination. The corneal surface had been covered by a transparent epithelium without significant neovascularization. Persistent epithelial defect developed in one eye 3 months after PKP which was considered as graft failure. Best-corrected visual acuity increased from 2.67 ± 0.08 LogMAR preoperatively to 0.64 ± 0.27 LogMAR after PKP (P < 0.001). Endothelial rejection occurred in four patients and was successfully managed by systemic and topical corticosteroids. Overall and rejection-free graft survival rates were 92.9 and 69.2%, respectively. Conclusion: PKP after COMET is a successful procedure which can be used to restore visual function in cases with bilateral total LSCD associated with severe stromal opacity due to chemical burns.

Top ^
 
  نشانی ما:   research.sums.ac.ir
معاونت پژوهشی و فناوری دانشگاه علوم پزشكی شيراز
شيراز- خيابان زند- ساختمان مركزی دانشگاه علوم
پزشكی شيراز- طبقه هفتم - معاونت پژوهشی و فناوری
تلفن: 32357282 ،  دورنگار: 32122430
پست الکترونیک: vcrdep@sums.ac.ir


همه حقوق این وب سایت متعلق است به:
معاونت پژ‍وهشی و فناوری دانشگاه علوم پزشكی شيراز
 استفاده از مطالب این وب سایت با ذکر منبع مجاز است.